art200 (studies in art)

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  1. art
    the definition of art relative to location , culture , and time .
  2. canon
    in art history all , of the art considered great and worht studying ins known as the canon.
  3. the canon of art history
    is the total of all the works of art that have remanined the favorires of art historians over time and that are most often taught about in an art history survey sourse .considered high quality and worth studying.the canon helps us to determine benchmarks for quality in art.
  4. things canon have in common
    be revelant to sucessive generations , git into our notiuons of the development of the history of art , be the best expressions of their artisitic movement or time perios
  5. canon are that the artist
    are some of the best in their field , shaoed the course of art history by which other srtists they influenced , had a kind of staying power thats has kept them popular long after they lived and died
  6. some categories of artistic production
    • fine art , popular culture , craft
    • the most respected form of art is fine art and pupular culture and craft coming in second
  7. fine art
    • a category of artistic production usually referred to as "high" art to denote that these works of art are of exceptional quality and held in high estem byt the art establishment. traditionally , fine art works tended to be defined by medium and included paintings , sculpture , and arcgitecture , but that has changed .
    • fine art can also be defined by setting .( art museums and art galleries ) Fine art takes some time to understand
  8. popular culture
    refers to mass produced objects and images meannt for mass production .`Ex. magazines , televisions , folk art , tattos , posters .its understood at first glance . the main difference betweeen fine art and pular culture is that while popular culture may be incorporated into fine art , fine art has limited incorporation into popular culture . consumerism is an important element of popular culture
  9. craft
    is an odd category to try to describe because a viewer wi9lll often recognioze craft when they see it , but its not alwqys easy to esplain. Ex . WOODWORKING , SERAMICS . GLASSMAKING . Craft objects have three things in common : an emphasis on how the work was made , material as defing parameter ( what the object is made of ) , utility ( the use of the item )
  10. GENRE
    refers to the type of art based on its subject matter. genre used to refer mostly to painting , but know genre now refers to the subject matter of all fine art . help the viewer understand what to expect from the work of art based on each genres own histiry and standard of representation .
  11. genre painting
    used to describe paintings of scenes from everyday life
  12. subject categories / genres of art
    figurative , still life , landscape , absrtract , non-objective
  13. figurative art
    is a form of representatuional art that focuses on people ( portraits )
  14. figure drawing
    art studies of huamn anatomy for the purpose of instruction and practice , to portraits which reveal the character of the sitter ( often using a live model )
  15. types of portraits
    • head and shoulders ( head and shouldres )
    • half length ( from waist up ) (called a bust )
    • three quarters length ( Kness up )
    • full length ( THE WHOLE PERSON )
    is an arranged array of inanim,ate object used as the subject of work of art
  17. vanita paintings
    is an example of of still life , works of art that use ceratain arranged objects as a metaphor for death and after life . ex. flowers , hour glass , skulls ,
  18. landscape art
    art uses the land as the subject of work of art , uses landscape as a metaphor . plein air means when poeple will go outside and paint an entire landscape . pastoral scenes is when landscapes include people and farm animals .
  19. city scape and sea scape
    are related to landsape because the same investigative questions for landscape can be used . a city scape shows a scene of a city while a sea scape is a paintitng that has a ocean as its subject
  20. abstract art
    may or may not have an object as its subject k, it may not be recognizable but you still know what it is
  21. representational art
    recognizable imagery , looks like what you till see .
  22. non objective
    refers to artwork that has no physical object as its subject and is also known as non representational to the physical world
  23. art history
    a formal academic discipline involving learning about the historical or social context of a work of artand viewing it in light of this information .
  24. art appreciation
    an approach to studying art in which he srudent studies art through subjects such as themes in art and formal content
  25. giorgio vasari ( key figure in art history )
    lived in florence during the renaissance and in 1550 published lives of the artists ,, tells the story of the most famous artists of vasari time , first person who attempted to construct a narrative history of art including biography.
  26. Johann joachim winckelman ( key figure in art history )
    belief that Greek art was the most perfect , wrote reflections on the imitation of Greek art in painting and sculpture , he is the figure responsible for the concept of studying art in terms of periods and styles and his studies of classic art further reinforced the notion that the classical period is the epitome of artwork in the western world 1770. classical art influence the US.
  27. facts
    • The stick figure would be dated older than the more realistic one (3D )
    • content is hard to determine in abstract and non objective art
    • if the artist is not known , context relies on social and historical dates
    • attribution is very important because a work of art is understood within its context
    • andy worhal had formal education
  28. important issues for art historians
    authorship , content , context ,interpretation , and ownership( depend on one another s change in one area would affect the other and it helps form and understand a complete picture of work of art )
  29. authorship
    who made it , when an art historian determines the artist of a work of art , its called an attribution , important for places like museum and art galleries because monetary value can change with attribution , raising or lowering the purchase price for a piece of art .
  30. content
    +describes the fixed internal components of a work of art . the internal components of art are the set parameters of the work of art , the unchanging elements such as the structure of the work of art , its subject .
  31. dark ages
    a time of limited learning . now , the less than realistic depictions of the middle ages are attributed to religion and the fact on focusing on life was not as important as focusing on the after life . people believed that if the present was not as important as the after life , then it did not matter if the depictions were realistic . too much focus on present life , a person would not go to the after life
  32. context
    refers to the situation that surrounds the creation and reception of a work of art . this includes the social and political situation at the time of the art , the place the art was made , the events of the artist life included in their biography , the date the work was made , and how and where the the work was received by viewers
  33. interpretation
    a process where art historians come to understand a work of art using both content and context to determine meaning , as well as as subtext ,the underlying secondary meaning of a work of art ( flower painting shows mortality )
  34. ownership
    the record of ownership for a work of art is known as a provenance .provenance is the pedigree , of a work of art extending from the original artist to the present owner , listing every owner
  35. patron
    is a person who provides financial support for an artist or who commissions a work of art
  36. commission
    is when a contract is made between an artist amd patron for the completion of a work of art
  37. two types of art training
    formal ( most popular ) and informal
  38. formal artist training ( college education )
    completing a formal course of study with set requirements and a specifies goal , college or university . art academy , grad school
  39. European guild system
    • first you will be a apprentices , you will learn how to draw for many years under youre master craftsman. ( will lived with him , and the family will pay the master )
    • once skilled was gain , the apprentice would leave the master shop as a journey man , who could be paid for his work but was not yet ready to establishes himself as a master
    • when enough experience will apply for a membership based on the production of a work of art worthy of master status
  40. facts
    • folk art relies in the incorporation of traditional forms and images into art
    • the difference between folk art and craft art is whether or not tradition is the basis if the work of art
  41. informal artist training ( self taught )
    referred to outsider or folk naive , any art instruction not leraned as part of of a formal educational program
  42. outsider art
    refers to the production of art by anyone outside of the mainstream "art world " , can also be a term used to describe artwork made by individuals as part of criminal rehabilitation programs , and artwork made by people with a mental illness
  43. some categories of informally trained artist
    outsider art , art brut , folk art
  44. art brut ( raw art )
    a french term coined by the mid century artist jean dufubetti describe works of art made by outsiders to the art establishment , but specially art made by the mentally ill
  45. folk art
    made by informally trained artist in which the perpetuation of traditional design ( created around the globe to a specific geographic area or culture ) is emphasized over innovation . is often incorporates craft techniques , but its not always considered craft
  46. mouseion
    9 daughters of Zeus , where the source of inspiration , celebrated all creative fields , big span between Greece and renaissance because ( 1500) sites for art generally tended to be places of worship and private homes
  47. cabinet of curiosities
    known in italy as studiolo meaning little study,these cabinets were popular in europe in the 16n and 17 century , it included natural objects and collections , tended to be private and were reserved for enjoyment and entertainment for a prince or a person collecting objects
  48. wunderkammer( german )
    kammer is a chamber or a room , wunder means wonder or miracle
  49. kunstkammer ( german )
    kuns means art , the reason why these cabinets are studied is because they express certain concepts that museum researches find in actual museums , namely to desire to catalog , preserve , and construct a narrative of knowledge .
  50. modern museum
    when there was a transitioned between the renaissance to the modern period , people began to see the importance in Rome and art because art historians who wrote about classical art including johann joachim winklemann. gran tour : people would travel to see the great works of art
  51. structure of the modern museum
    primary personnel , secondary personnel , museum volunteers
  52. primary personnel
    who are responsible for overseeing the direction of the museum ans its acquisitions , are arranged in in a strict hierarchy
  53. secondary personnel
    who assists the primary personnel and facilitate the day to day activities of the museum as well as running education programs and protecting the museum collections
  54. museums volunteers
    often unpaid , and have little or no control over museum operations
  55. primary museum personnel
    trustess , director , curators
  56. trustess
    provide financial support to the museum , they have a real stake in the way the museum is run and ensuring the mission statement , usually elected to their position but do not have to have a background in art , they e
  57. mission statement
    a statement outlining the purpose of the museum , is followed and that exhibitions are opf good quality and beneficial to the community
  58. director
    top position of the museum , takes years and years , an advance degree in art history , the publications of texts on art , and a strong record of overseeing important art exhibitions , ,usually start of as as museum curator , responsible for valuable and irreplaceable . cultural airtifacts , hels determine th direction the museum will take in its art exhibitions , one of the major fundraisers for the museum
  59. curators
    are the people who oversee the actual collection of objects in the museum, arranged exhibitions , negotiate the loan of artworks from other collections , and write texts to accompany those eshibitions , interact with artist and give tours , required to have a master degree in the field of art history in their area of specialty
  60. secondary museum personnel
    educational /outreach/membership , registrars and collection managers , preparators / installation crew , security
  61. educational /outreach/membership ( secondary personnel )
    to create a public that appreciates the museum , people join museums to financially support the museum and to participate in special museum events , and to get free admission on a unlimited basis
  62. registrars and collection managers
    are the people responsible for maintaining the condition of the museums collection and art on loan from other institutions, they catalogue thew works , check the condition of the art , send art out for repairs , and control the use and distribution of the artwork . if damage is found they called the curators , also check the conditions of the works received against the condition reports if the curators who sent the works , have a bachelors in art , art history or museum studies
  63. preparators / installation crew
    oversee the installation of artworks for exhibitions and may construct pedestals for display , build false walls in the galleries , arrange the light , at the end of an exhibition , th preparators work with the registrars who check the condition's of the objects before the artwork are created for shipment to the next venue , preparatos work with the curators and an instllation crew to install the artworks as walls in the museum , a bachelors and a good knowledge in coontruction is needed
  64. security( secondary personnel )
    security department : includes the chief of security as well as all museums guards , often called museum attendants . responsible for opening and closing the museum and protection of the art
  65. museum volunteers ( secondary personnel )
    are people who work for the museum on special assignments in order to gain experience in the field , unpaid .
  66. docents ( secondary personnel )
    volunteers from the community , provide museum tours for patrons and visiting school children , receive art training from the museum
  67. two approaches in treating works of art
    preservation , and restoration
  68. preservation
    is an approach to art conservation which stresses halting the deterioration of a cultural artifact such as a work of art , and includes cleaning a work of art and treating it to stop further deterioration
  69. restoration
    is when the work of art is returned to what is believed to be its original condition , adding missing pieces or inpainting in the missing sections of paintings
  70. facts
    • the formal element of art and the principles of design in composition are used to describe the varied elements that come together to create a work of art , these are the artistic tools .
    • The formal elements are the tools used to create works of arts , while the principles of design describe how those tools are arranged and work together in the composition , the total arrangement of visual elements in a finish work of art .
  71. The formal elements of art
    line , light and value shape volume and mass texture time motion change and color .
  72. Stippling
    A drawing of single dots
  73. Actual lines
    lines that exist in space and have physical substance .
  74. Implied lines
    Lines that do not actually exist in space
  75. contour lines
    Are used to outline or trace the outer edges of an object but usually do not provide any interial detail
  76. hatching
    refers to lines that are parallel to one another
  77. Cross hatching
    Are the sets of parallel lines that over lap each other in different ways
  78. Facts
    • Diagonal line tend to imply movement in a work of art while horizontal lines may imply calm
    • Exterior lines are the lines of the outside edges of the sculpture while interior lines are the lines over the surface of the sculpture between the outside edges .
  79. Justural
    Describe lines that are frenetic and seem to express visual energy ( movement ) but no actual motion is present .
  80. Facts
    In sculpture lines refer to the lines of the work created bu it's shape and material or the edges of the sculpture in architecture lines refer to the lines of the building as well and lines in any building . Verticle lines in buildings show the height .
  81. two different types of light
    natural and artificial
  82. natural light
    is the light from the sun( shows the truest colors )
  83. artificial light
    light from all other non solar sources such as light bulbs .
  84. direct light
    is the light directly from a source such as the sun or a light bulb
  85. ambient light
    is light that is reflected from either natural or artificial sources
  86. value
    the quality of light is described in terms of value , its lightness or darkness , and the range from light to dark is often expressed in an achromatic value scale . chroma refers to color , so an achromatic scale is a value scale without color , showing a progression from white to black ( makes things look 3D )
  87. tone
    value is also referred to as tone , and in a work of art tone is used to express the use of light and dark to create the appearance of 3D in a 2D work of art
  88. form
    we refer to the appearance of 3D as form
  89. chiaroscuro
    means light and dark , and in art refers to the realistic effected created by modeling forms with shading and highlights in paintings
  90. tenebrism
    is used to describe an extreme form of chiaroscuro where sharp contrast of light and are used , often incorporating spotlighted areas amongts dark , obscure backgrounds
  91. facts
    • to create realistic looking forms in 2D works of art , artist used 3 distinct tones, highlights , midtones and shadows
    • an artwork can have real or imagery mass and volume
  92. highlights
    are the lightest areas of the composition
  93. shadows
    are the darkest parts of the composition
  94. midtones
    are the transitional areas between light and dark, highlight and shadows
  95. shape
    • is a flat area with a clear boundary such as as line , or an area bounded by other shapes
    • ex, a square is a shape a cube is not
  96. organic
    soft , irregular , rounded forms , they curve and bend like objects in nature
  97. geometric
    forms with regular hard edges , they are squares and triangles
  98. mass
    refers to a solid object , which transfer to physical weight
  99. volume
    is the space contained within a 3D object
  100. Actual space
    For 3 dimensional art objects , space is the area around and between objects as well as the space occupied by a work of art and it's setting
  101. Illusionistic Space
    For 2 dimensional art work such as painting and photography , space may refer to the illusion of depth created by using linear perspective
  102. Facts
    • Space is considered positive or negative . Actual , physical space that is occupied by a form that has a mass per volume is called positive space . negative space is the area of an art work where nothing is visually or physically present .
    • the contexts of the work of art will determine how the formal element will function
  103. Linear perspective
    is a mathematical system for creating the illusion of depth in a flat work of art .
  104. vanishing point
    is the place where the orthogonals converge in a work using linear perspective
  105. Orthogonals
    the imaginary lines that connect the actual lines of the objects , they are the imaginary or implied lines that we use to determine where the vanishing points are in a work of art . The point to an important figure .
  106. one point perspective
    a system for creating the appearance of space where the illusion of depth is created using one vanishing point
  107. two point perspective
    two vanishing points . they're often side to side ,this creates the illusion that the object has depth and provides for the artist to be able to draw the object in a three quarter view .
  108. three point perspective
    point side to side and one below . this illusion creates that the object has height as well as depth
  109. texture
    is used to describe the surface qualities of an object
  110. two types of texture
    actual texture and visual texture .
  111. actual texture
    is when you can actually feel with your own fingers
  112. visual texture
    it looks like it , but it's not ( wood )
  113. time
    • can refer to the internal length of a work of art ( how long the work lasts )
    • the time spent interacting with or viewing a work of art or changes in art
  114. motion
    motion is the movement or change in a work of art
  115. implied motion
    created when formal visual elements are used in a work of art to create the illusion of movement
  116. actual motion
    is where the work actually moves
  117. color has three characteristics
    hue , value , and intensity .
  118. hue
    is the peer state of the color itself and is referred to by the name we give it like red , blue , or green .
  119. Value
    is the lightness or darkness of a color , adding white to a color creates a tense of the color while adding black creates a shade of that color . A chromatic scale shows the progression for lightness to darkness for a hue .
  120. intensity
    is the brightness or dullness of a color , sometimes referred to saturation
  121. primary colors
    are the base colors from which all the other colors are mixed ( can't be mixed ) red , yellow , blue .
  122. territory colors
    red orange , yellow orange , yellow green , blue green , blue purple , and red purple . is an intermediate color results from the mixing of one primary color with it's neighboring secondary color .
  123. secondary colors ( purple , green , orange )
    • results from the mixing together of two primary colors . red + yellow = orange
    • yellow + blue = green
    • red + blue = violet
  124. local color
    the actual true color of an object . the color of an apple would be red
  125. arbitrary color
    and that is non representational color chosen for affect or expressive purpose . can be used to crate mood in a work of art . example : the sky would be red
  126. warm colors
    yellow orange and red .
  127. cool colors
    blue green and purple .
  128. additive color system
    describe lights-emitting media , the colors produced by a computer monitors , it needs to first start with a discussion of light and it's spectrum , since the additive color system comprises colors which are created on light-emitting media such as computer screens and television . The primary colors are red , green and blue .
  129. subtractive color system
    describes pigment-base media , the colors produced by mixing paint and printing inks . the colors are cyan , magenta , yellow and black called the CMYK . magenta -+ yellow = red . cyan + magenta = blue , and yellow + cyan = green .
  130. fact
    newton observe that when normal white light passes through a prism it is broken into bands of color that look like a rainbow called a spectrum . the colors are red orange yellow green blue indigo and violet .
  131. rgb colors
    green + blue = cyan and red + blue = magenta
  132. balance
    is used to describe the arrangements of negative and positive space used to create the feeling that elements in the work of art are evenly distributed .
  133. visual weight
    how some elements appear visually heavy while others appear visually light and it creates balance .
  134. symmetrical balance
    each side of a composition has equal visual weight . an imaginary line is drawn down the middle to see if it is balanced .
  135. asymmetrical
    when it gives the impression of visual balance through the arrangement of unequally weighted elements
  136. radio balance
    when the elements of a composition radiate out from from a central point of reference .
  137. proportion
    is the size of things in relation to one another in a composition and can be an expression of an element in a relation to the hole .
  138. canon of proportion
    a system for depicting the ideal propositions of a human body based on a base unit of measure , such as head first . The base unit of measure is different for different cultures .
  139. scale
    a comparison of the size of an object to what it would really be like in person
  140. rhythm
    the repetition of elements in a composition to create a pattern has to repeat three times . it can be regular or irregular but still have the feeling of it being balanced . it's used to provide interests too .
  141. unity
    the overall sameness in a work of art .
  142. varity
    is the overall difference
  143. fact
    artist use emphasis to indicate the relative importance of elements in a work of art . the arrangements of formal elements in a composition is governed by the principle of composition
  144. emphasis
    is the focus of the composition . creates the focal point ( an important figure might be in the middle and highlighting it with a spotlight or making someone look at him/her .
  145. hieratic scaling
    a device for showing the importance of an object in a composition by depicting the most important figure as the largest figure .
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art200 (studies in art)
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