Chapter 9 NTD303

  1. what percent of adults are either overweight of obese, this represents how much of the population?
    • 68%
    • 2/3
  2. ___ % of US children are overweigh or obese, which represents about ___ of the population
    • 32
    • 1/3
  3. overweight and obesity ?
    • major health problem in the US
    • prevalence continues to increase
    • BMI or 25 or greater
    • epidemic is worldwide
  4. energy in > energy out?
  5. energy out > energy out
    losing weight
  6. the number of fat cells will continue to ___ if energy in is greater than energy out
  7. when fat cells accumulate ___, thi causes them to ___, which signals the body to ?
    • triglycerides
    • expand
    • make more fat cells
  8. when you lose weight, what happens to the number of fat cells?
    they get smaller, but do no disappear
  9. people with extra fat cells tend to ___ lost weight rapidly because their many fat cells can readily fill
  10. people with an average number of fat cells may be ___ ___ in maintaining weight loss when their cells shrink because both the fat cell number and the fat cell size are?
    • more succesfful
    • normal
  11. the amount of fat in ___ ___ reflects both the number and size of fat cells
    adipose tissure
  12. the greatest increase of number of fat cells occurs during?
    late childhood and early puberty
  13. take away messages of fat cells?
    • not to become overweight or obese in the first place
    • the prevention of obesity is most crucial during the growing years of childhood and adolescence when fat cells increase in number
  14. job is to remove triglycerides from the blood for storage in adipose tissue and muscle cells
    lipoprotein lipase
  15. greater LPL levels are found in
    • obese people
    • people who lost weight
  16. metabolism is the ?
    set point
  17. ___ ___ increases after weight gain and decreases after weight loss, which can explain why it is so difficult for underweight person to gain weight and an overweight person to lose weight
    energy expenditure
  18. determinant in the development of obesity and makes storing fat very efficient
    lipoprotein lipase enzyme
  19. Obese people have more ___ than lean peopl
  20. the body has a certain weight that is it comfortable with and will try to maintain its weight by means of its own internal controls
    set point
  21. even modest excesses in energy intake have a more dramatic effect on obese people than normal weight people
  22. LPL activity is increased which means it is easier to regain weight that was lost
    people who have lost weight
  23. do not cause obesity, except for genetic disorders
  24. genetic disorder characterized by excessive appetite, massive obesity, short stature, and mental retardation
    prodder willi syndrome
  25. how your genes interact with the environment can deterimine
  26. role of genetics in obesity?
    genetic influences do seem to be involved
  27. genetics may determine predisposition to obesity because?
    • genes interact with diet and physical activity
    • satiety and energy balance
  28. the influence of environmental factors on gene expression
  29. suppresses appetite
  30. when body fat increase, leptin ____ . when body fat decreases, leptin ___
    • increases
    • decreases
  31. stimulates appetite and is high when there is weight loss
  32. ghrelin is secreted from the?
  33. leptin is secreted from ?
    adipose tissure
  34. all of the circumstances that we encounter on a daily basis that push us toward fatness
    obesogenic environment
  35. causes of overweight and obesity?
    • environment
    • overeating
    • physical inactivity
  36. DRI for prevention of weight gain?
    60 minutes of moderate activity everyday
  37. disease risk profile includes?
    family history, life threatening diseases, common risk factors for chronic diseases
  38. the higher the BMI, the greater the waist circumference and the more risk factors then the greater urgency of ?
  39. three indicators of obesity?
    • BMI
    • waist circumference
    • disease risk profile
  40. beneficial weight loss?
    • health status
    • motivation
  41. overweight in good health?
    • maintain don't gain
    • sometimes health is not the motivation for weight loss
  42. obese or overweight with risk factors
    • weight loss recommended
    • two or more risk factors
  43. obese or overweight with life threatening condition
    weight loss recommended
  44. problems of overweight and obesity?
    • social consequences
    • most do not maintain weight loss
    • psyhogical problems
  45. dangerous obesity interventions?
    • diet books and weight loss programs
    • fad diets
    • weight loss products
    • herbal products
  46. strategies for weight reduction depend on?
    • degree of obesity
    • risk of disease
  47. 2 drugs approved by FDA for obesity?
    • orlistat
    • phentermine
  48. blocks digestion and absorption of dietary fat by inhibiting pancreatic lipase activity
  49. suppress appetite by enhancing the release of norepinephrine
  50. surgery for obesity?
    • reduces food capacity of stomach
    • reduce production of ghrelin
    • long term safety and effectiveness
    • liposuction
  51. removes some fat, not for the morbidly obese and is just a quick fix
  52. aggressive treatments of obesity surgery?
    • gastric banding
    • gastric bonding
  53. successful weight loss strategies?
    • small changes
    • moderate losses
    • reasonable goals
    • benefits of modest weight loss
    • incorporation of healthy eating and physical activity
  54. safe goal of weight loss?
    1-2 pounds loss/week or 10% of body weight in 6 months
  55. breakfast frequency is inversely related to
  56. eating plans for weight loss strategies?
    • nutritional adequacy
    • eat small portions
    • lower energy density
  57. weight loss strategy eating plans?
    • remember water
    • focus on fiber
    • choose fats sensibly
    • select carbs carefully
    • watch for empty kcals
  58. physical activity weight loss strategies?
    • best approach to weight management
    • combo of diet and physical activity
    • reduction of abdominal fat
    • kcal expenditure
  59. how much room there is for bad foods in a day
    discretionary kcalorie allowance
  60. speeds up with activity
  61. with physical activity, fat decreases and lean body mass increases
    body composition
  62. physical activity affects appetite how?
    • delayed appetite
    • inappropriate appetite
  63. burning fat all over body not just the part you workout
    spot reducing
  64. environmental influences of weight loss
    • atmosphere
    • accessibility
    • socializing
    • distractions
    • presence of food
    • multiple choices
    • package and portion sizes
    • serving containers
  65. weight loss strategies behavior?
    • positive
    • keep records
    • set small specific goals
    • reward
    • practice
    • cognitive skills
    • personal attitude
    • support groups
  66. components of successful weight loss
    • vigourous exercise regimens
    • careful eating patterns
    • frequent self monitoring
  67. takes more the prevent weight regain than to prevent weight gain
    changes in metabolism
  68. how to treat an underweight person
    • help them gain weight
    • physical conditioning with high energy intakes
    • high kcal diet
    • eat snacks in between meals
    • learn to eat larger portions
    • eat atleast 3 meals a day
  69. if underweight due to illness?
    incorporate liquid dietary supplements which are easy for a weak person to swallow
  70. eating and extra 500-1000kcals a day above normal energy needs is enough to support?
    exercise and build muscle
Card Set
Chapter 9 NTD303
ntd 303 chapter 9 notes for test