1. Areas of exceptionally high avian spp richness ocurr where
    • in western amazon near the andes, in less than 50kmof forest 480 bird spp recorded at Limoncocha, ecuador. 
  2. tropical forests are spatially heterogeneous and can only be understood through an appreciation of what factors
    biogeographic, evolutionary and ecological
  3. Neotropical forests have ___ total spp of birds bats, primates and amphibians than forests elswhere
  4. how many endemic families of birds are in the neoptropics compared to the one in Africa and Asia
  5. African forests have a large number and diversity of what
    large terrestrial mammals incl. great apes
  6. asian forests are notable for their variety of what animals
  7. Wallace's line separates what?
    the asian faunas from markedly different new guinean and australian faunas to the east, where placental mammals are represented by bats and rodents alone. primates are replaced by marsupials and rain forest bandicoots.
  8. Madagascar is unique and is characterised by what
    lemurs, tenrecs, chameleons, unusual carnviore fauna
  9. There are also differences across trophic guilds. give an example
    in neotropics, frugivorous primates are more abundant and folivorous primates are scarcer than in the old world. likely this has bio-geographic and ecological causes.
  10. placental mammals are widespread and dominate all RF regions apart from where? In these places, marsupials have filled niches occupied by monkeys elsewhere
    Australia- New Guinea
  11. What are egg laying animals called
  12. monotremes are represented in rainforests by what in new guinea and australia
    two spp of echidnas
  13. Outside Australia-NG, placental mammals dominate mammalian fauna and are successful where?
    In the canopy where primates and bats are common
  14. What percentage of biomass do herbivorous sloths and howler monkeys constitute in rainforests in Surinam and Panama
    • S: 28%
    • P: 71%
  15. Insectivores and terrestrial herbivores are relatively what
  16. Whilst these patterns have yet to be explained, insectivores, both aboreal and terrestrial, may suffer from competition with whom? What limits terrestrial herbivores?
    • competition with insectivorous birds 
    • limits: scarcity of accessible food
  17. The primates include __ families, __ genera and over ____ spp.
    • 13
    • 63
    • 270
  18. Primates arent found where
    australia and the pacific
  19. primates are divided into what groups
    lower primates or prosimians, includes lemurs in madagascar and lorises, pottos, bush babies in africa and asia. higher primates or anthropoids such as marmosets, tarsiers, monkeys and apes
  20. Extant prosimians occur only in the old world tropics despite the fact that what?
    NAmerica was centre of early diversification
  21. 5/7 prosimian families exist only where
  22. the tarsids and lorises extend through where
    mainland africa, india and southeast asia
  23. Anthropoids have almost ___ times as many species as prosimians and are almost _____ distributed between the New and Old World tropics. Most are _____
    4, equally, diurnal
  24. what suggests new world monkeys descended from a single ancestral species which arrived in south america 30-35 mya?
    share anatomical characteristics. fossil record
  25. the New World Monkeys are called
    the Platyrrhini
  26. all platyrrhina have tails and in many genera, the tail is what and acts as what
    prehensile, act as an additional limb in their predominately arboreal habitat
  27. asian and african monkeys are called
    the catarrhini
  28. the catarrhini lack ______ ____ but have what and use a broader variety of habitats
    prehensile tails, opposable digits
  29. the catarrhini are divided between the ___ and _______ based on various features incl. brain size, capacity for tool use, and learnt cultural behaviour
    apes, monekys
  30. the apes are divided into two groups, which are the ____ ____ and the ______, both of which are forest dependent
    great apes and gibbons
  31. the great apes incl. chimpanzee, bonobo or pygmy chimpanzee, gorilla and organ-utan. the Chimp, bonobo and gorilla all inhabit where? where does the organ-utan live?
    • Equatorial africa
    • Found on SE Asian islands of sumatra and borneo
  32. 12 spp of gibbon differ from great apes in being what
    smaller, pair-bonded and dont make nests
  33. gibbon occur where
    tropical and subtropical RFs, from Ne india through southern china and SE asia and into Indonesia
  34. They move through the canopy by
  35. gibbons advertise their territories with what, which is characteristic in many asian RFs
  36. There is _____ in primate biomass in african rainforests
  37. similar variation exists where
    in south east asia and south america
  38. in asia and SA, local primate spp richness, is correlated to some degree with what
    primary productivity
  39. this relation is particularly strong in neotropics, where frugivory is common among primates, suggesting that local fruit productivity determined by rainfall may influence what
    primate richness
  40. in africa there are fewer frugivorous primates, so this pattern is less
  41. a pattern apparent in africa, is that heterogeneous habitat mosaics support larger what than homogeneous forests to the extent that monkeys are almost absent in some monodominant forests
    Populations of primates
  42. many primates subsist on a variety of foods, but most rely on what for much of the year
    relatively few resources
  43. neotropical primates are mainly ___1___ and far less dependent on _2___ than african and asian spp.
    • 1. frugivorous 
    • 2. leaves
  44. they are often good seed dispersers. what do most new world monkeys do?
    swallow seeds and defecate them some time later, often far from parent tree
  45. what do paleotropical cercopithecine monkeys do?
    store fruit in cheek pouches and spit out seeds as they move through the forest, resulting in a less clumped seed distribution
  46. the general paucity of fruits in equatorial asian and african forests has probably what
    limited the use of fruit by local primates
  47. several have become what specialists
    leaf eating
  48. African colobus monkeys colobus spp and the Bornean proboscis monkey Nasalis larvatus have what to aid the digestion of an almost purely leaf diet
    extended guys containing commensal bacteria
  49. folivorous primates eat what at salt and clay licks which may help to do what?
    eat soil to detoxify plant defence compounds or supplement trace minerals that are lacking in their diets
  50. Insectivorous and faunivorous primates are smaller species such as what in Asia, Africa, South America and Madagascar?
    tarsiers in asia, african galagos (bush babies), marmosets in S america, aye-aye madagascar
  51. mostly nocturnal, insectivorous primates supplement their diets with what
    fruit and nectar
  52. what does the smallest of all monkeys, the south american pygmy marmoset and several other Callithrix marmosets do?
    gouge holes in trees to feed on exudates, though they eat insects fruit and flowers
  53. chimpanzees are primarily what specialists and the percentage of prey in their diet is usually very low
    ripe fruit
  54. chimpanzees do on occasion, prey on vertebrates, what occurs in Kibale, Uganda with male chimpanzees?
    Hunt cooperatively and may kill 6-12% of the red colobus population annually.
  55. what order are bats
  56. bats account for up to ____ of the mammal spp in trop rfs
  57. in amazonian lowland forests, bat communities may incl. over ___ spp in relatively small areas
  58. they range in size from giant flying foxes w wingspans of ____m to tiny bumblebee bat in Thailand, weighing ____g
    • 1.8 
    • 1.5
  59. the diets of tropical bats include what
    fruit, nectar, insects, fish, frogs, blood
  60. there are two major orders, Megachiroptera are restricted to where? Microchiroptera occur where?
    • Mega: old world tropics and pacific
    • micro: throughout the tropics
  61. Megachiroptera are the true fruit bats and include the what, of which there are also ___ spp of nectar specialists
    flying foxes, Pteropidae; 15.
  62. microchiroptera are primarily insectivorous but also include what spp
    fruit and nectar feeding spp
  63. fruit bats in both regions are important what
    dispersers of many rainforest tree seeds
  64. nectarivorous bats in both suborders are pollinators of many tropical rainforest plants, relying on what to locate nocturnal flowers.
    sight and smell
  65. echolocation allows insectivorous bats to do what
    catch several thousand insects each night on the wing, which contributes a useful service in the control of malaria carrying mosquitoes in some areas.
  66. south american fishing bats are able to detect what using echolocation
    the fins of small fish breaking the water surface
  67. other neotropical bats prey on frogs, targeting them how
    by using frog calls
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