Health Science 2211- Module 3 Lecture 5 (part 2)

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  1. define metabolic syndrome.
    pre-diabetic state defined by a set on diagnostic criteria that mark individuals at increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease 
  2. what are some other names for metabolic syndrome? (3)
    • syndrome X
    • insulin-resistance syndrome
    • beer belly syndrome
  3. how does the progression of diabetes/CVD occur from metabolic syndrome?
    • metabolic syndrome
    • pre-diabetes
    • diabetes/CVD
  4. The presence of 3 or more of these risk factors indicates diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. what are they? (5)
    • elevated waist circumference
    • elevated triglycerides
    • reduced HDL cholesterol 
    • elevated blood pressure
    • elevated fasting plasma glucose 
  5. how does abdominal obesity (visceral obesity) lead to the development of CVD and diabetes?(cardiometabolic risk factors)
    adipocytes that have reached their threshold of fat storage respond by secreting inflammatory substances called adipokines that interfere with the insulin-driven transport system
  6. what is insulin? what is its function?
    • hormone produced in pancreas
    • body breaks down food into glucose ( cell's main energy source)
    • cell cannot use glucose without insulin 
  7. define insulin resistance. How does this lead to hyperglycemia?
    • muscles, fats and liver cells cannot use insulin 
    • sensing body still needs insulin, pancreas keeps producing more and more
    • eventually it cant keep up and glucose builds up in bloodstream
  8. how does hypertension cause atherosclerosis?
    mechanical stress that hypertension exerts on the arteries favors chronic endothelial damage and the onset of atherosclerosis 
  9. what are the complications of metabolic syndrome?
    • diabetes 
    • CVD
  10. "metabolic susceptibility" relates to what 2 factors?
    genetic and racial factors 
  11. metabolic syndrome incidence increases with?
    age and parallels the increase in obesity 
  12. what are the 5 risk factors for metabolic syndrome?
    • age: increases with age 
    • race: more common in blacks and Mexican-Americans
    • obesity: BMI greater than 25
    • history of diabetes: family history of type 2 diabetes or diabetes during pregnancy 
    • other diseases: hypertension, CVD
  13. who has the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Canada?
  14. what are the 3 concepts of underlying causes responsible for epidemic of metabolic syndrome?
    • environment causes
    • insulin resistance
    • inflammation
  15. what is a primary intervention for metabolic syndrome? (3)
    • weight reduction
    • change in dietary choices
    • increase in physical activity 
  16. what are some secondary prevention methods for metabolic syndrome? (2)
    • public education 
    • screening for at risk individuals: with blood pressure, family history, tobacco use
  17. what is the tertiary prevention method for metabolic syndrome?
    • minimize risk of type 2 diabetes and CVD by treatment of each individual component:
    • obesity
    • glucose tolerance
    • insulin resistance
    • lipid disorders
    • hypertension 
Card Set
Health Science 2211- Module 3 Lecture 5 (part 2)
metabolic syndrome
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