Health Science 2211- Module 3 Lecture 5

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  1. _____% of diabetics are obese.
  2. define obesity and what is it a result of?
    • presence of excess adipose tissue (accumulation of body fat)
    • result of an energy imbalance over a long period of time
  3. what is BMI? What does it determine?
    • Body Mass Index (BMI): mathematical ratio taking into account an individuals weight in kg and height in m2 
    • can be used for adults 20 years or older
    • determines an individuals weight category
  4. what are the 3 obesity classes?
    • class 1 obese: BMI 30-35
    • Class 2 severe obese: BMI 35-40
    • class 3, morbidly obese: BMI greater than 40
  5. list the diagnostic methods for obesity?
    • BMI
    • Waist circumference 
  6. how does waist circumference diagnose obesity?
    presence of excessive body fat in the abdomen, when out of proportion to total body fat is considered an independent predictor of risk factors and ailments associated to obesity 
  7. what is the waist circumference # that determines of you're obese for men and women?
    • men: greater than 40 inches
    • women: greater than 35 inches 
  8. it has been established that obesity is associated with an increased prevalence of what the 4 things?
    • coronary artery disease 
    • hypertension
    • diabetes mellitus
    • other diseases
  9. List the 2 types of obesity.
    • Apple/ android
    • pear/gynecoid 
  10. what is apple/android obesity? (3)
    • excessive fat on the abdomen
    • common in men
    • significant correlation with metabolic syndrome
  11. what is pear/ gynecoid obesity? (3)
    • excessive fat on the thighs and buttocks
    • common in women 
    • non-significant correlation with metabolic syndrome  
  12. what is significant about the adipose tissue in people who have android and gynecoid obesity and are at risk for atherosclerosis?
    • gynecoid obesity: adipose tissue on outside of smooth muscle in vessels
    • android obesity: adipose tissue inside of smooth muscle in vessels
  13. Abdominal obesity (android) is linked to an increase in what 2 diseases?
    • coronary artery disease 
    • type 2 diabetes
  14. while the whole picture is till unclear on how obesity develops, it is believed to involve the integration of what 5 factors?
    • environmental 
    • behavioral 
    • genetic 
    • metabolic 
    • endocrine 
  15. what are the environmental influence to obesity? (2)
    • high food intake
    • low physical activity 
  16. what are some clinical consequences of obesity? (5)
    • hypertension
    • type 2 diabetes
    • coronary artery disease 
    • stroke 
    • gall bladder disease 
  17. what are the contributing factors that have tipped the balance between caloric intake and expense into an unfavorable area? (economics of obesity) (5)
    • expanding labor market for women
    • increased consumption of food away from home
    • rising costs of healthy foods
    • growing quantity of caloric intake with declining overall food prices
    • decreased need of occupational and environmental physical activity
  18. which country has the highest percentage of obesity rate worldwide?
  19. It has been calculated in 2020 how many children (boys and girls) will be obese?
    • one fifth of all boys
    • one third of all girls 
  20. overweight children have a high probability _____________________.
    of becoming obese adults 
  21. children with obese parents present a ______ risk of being overweight
    two-fold risk
  22. what is the first step in ensuring children don't become obese?
    • ensure that children eat well 
    • improvements to their diet 
  23. what is cardiometabolic risk?
    factors that can increase your risk of heart disease and diabetes
  24. what are some classical risk factors in cardiometobolic risk? (4)
    • smoking 
    • high LDL 
    • hypertension 
    • elevated blood glucose 
  25. what are some emerging risk factors closely related to abdominal obesity? (4)
    • insulin resistance 
    • low HDL
    • high triglycerides 
    • inflammatory markers 
  26. cardiometabolic risk is based on the concept of ___________________.
    risk continuum 
  27. cardiometabolic risk can be defined by?
    abdominal obesity 
Card Set
Health Science 2211- Module 3 Lecture 5
obesity and metabolic syndrome
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