Assessment 3

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  1. Ganglion
    A group of neuron cell bodies in the PNS (128)
  2. Neuroglia.
    • Cells within PNS & CNS 
    • external to neurons
    • form an essential part of nerve tissue
  3. Synapse.
    The connecting point b/w nerve cells or b/w a nerve cell and a receptor or effector cell.
  4. Paraplegia
    paralysis of the lower extremities and often the lower trunk of the body.
  5. Hemiparesis.
    partial paralysis of one side of the body.
  6. Hemiplegia
    paralysis of one side of the body
  7. Myelin sheath.
    a fatty white envelope of cells providing protection and electrical insulation to neurons.
  8. Angi/o
  9. Thromb/o
  10. Hemat/o
  11. Phleb/o
  12. Endocardium
    the inner surface of the heart
  13. Epicardium
    the outer covering of the heart
  14. Pericardium
    serous membrane lining the pericardial cavity (peri- = surrounding)
  15. Myocardium
    • the heart muscle
    • includes nerves and blood vessels
  16. Ischemia
    deficiency in blood supply to the tissues
  17. Nephritis
    inflammation of the kidney
  18. Cystitis
    inflammation of the bladder
  19. Ureteritis
    inflammation of a ureter
  20. Urethritis
    inflammation of the urethra
  21. Cholecystitis
    inflammation of the gallbladder
  22. Cirrhosis
    chronic disease of the liver
  23. Hepatitis
    inflammation of the liver
  24. Deglutination
  25. Peristalsis.
    wave-like muscular contractions that move food along in the digestive tract
  26. Eructation.
    act of belching or burping gas up from the stomach
  27. Apnea.
    absence of breathing
  28. Dyspnea
    difficult breathing
  29. Bradypnea
    abnormal slowness of respiration
  30. Tachypnea.
    abnormal rapid respiration.
  31. Myoparesis
    slight muscle paralysis
  32. Hem/o
  33. sclerosis
    abnormal hardening condition
  34. Atheroma
    a plaque of fatty tissue (p. 190)
  35. necrosis
    localized tissue death
  36. Fundus
    part of the stomach lying above the cardia notch (265)
  37. Base
    word used to describe the bottom of each lung (238)
  38. Apex
    word used to describe the upper tip of each lung (238)
  39. Normal apical pulse for a teenager.
    • Irregular rhythm
    • Speeds upon inspiration
    • Slows on expiration
  40. What is a thrill?
    a palpable vibration
  41. Nine modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease.
    • Abnormal lipids
    • smoking
    • hypertension
    • DM
    • reg physical activity
    • abdominal obesity
    • psychosocial factors
    • eating fruits & veggies
    • alcohol
  42. Which valve closures are louder at base of heart?
    S2 (semilunar) is louder than S1 (AV valve, carotid artery pulse)
  43. How is blood returned to the heart (venous BF)?
    • skeletal muscles contract & milk it back
    • breathing causes a pressure gradient (inspiration decreases thoracic pressure & increases abdominal pressure)
    • intraluminal valves ensure unidirectional flow
  44. Normal PV changes in aging adults.
    • Peripheral BV more rigid (arteriosclerosis) = increase in systolic BP
    • enlargement of intramuscular calf veins
    • immobility, HF = risk DVT & pulm embolism
    • less lymph nodes due to loss of lymph tissue
  45. What is a modified Allen test used for?
    to evaluate adequacy of collateral circulation before cannulating the radial artery
  46. Structural scoliosis.
    • FIXED
    • curvature shows when standing & bending fwd
  47. Functional scoliosis.
    • apparent when standing
    • disappears w/ fwd bending
  48. Herniated nucleus pulposus.
    nucleus pulposus (ctr of intervertebral disk) ruptures into spinal canal & puts pressure on the local spinal nerve root
  49. What causes sciatic pain with herniated nucleus pulposus?
    straight leg raises
  50. Dislocated hip.
    head of femur is displaced out of cup-shaped acetabulum
  51. 3 bones of the knee.
    • femur
    • tibia
    • patella
  52. What causes decreased ht as we age?
    • shortening of vertebral column caused by
    • loss of water content & thinning of intervertebral disks, and
    • osteoporosis (decrease in ht of individual vertebrae)
  53. Crepitation.
    • audible and palpable crunching or grating that accompanies movement
    • occurs when articular surfaces in joints are roughened (RA)
  54. Loss of bone MATRIX
  55. Lordosis.
    Inward curvature of spine
  56. Scoliosis
    abnormal lateral curvature of thoracic & lumbar, usually with some rotation
  57. Kyphosis.
    Curving of spine that causes rounding of back (hunchback)
  58. Ankylosis
    • stiffness or fixation of a joint
    • due to abnormal adhesion s& rigidity of bones at the joing
  59. Where are the liver, duodenum, & gallbladder located?
  60. Where is the sigmoid colon located?
  61. Changes in GI system of aging adult.
    • decrease in gastric acid secretion
    •     -increased risk of pernicious anemia
    •     -iron deficiency anemia
    •     -malabsorption of Ca++
  62. What to ask about discharge (vaginal)?
    • color (white, yellow-grn, gray)
    • smell
    • character (curd-like?)
    • associated w/ itching, rash, pain w/ sex?
  63. What causes thick, white, curdlike discharge?
    Candiasis (Moniliasis): intense pruritis
  64. Severe perineal itching, excoriations & erythematous areas, usually localized in pubic hair.
    Pediculosis Pubis (crab lice)
  65. Red rash, primary lesion is red, swollen vesicles, then may have weeping of lesions, crusts, scales, thickening of skin, excoriations from scratching.
    Contact Dermatitis
  66. Painless warty growths, may be unnoticed by woman.  Pink/flesh colored, soft, pointed, moist, warty papules.
    HPV (genital warts)
  67. Single or multiple cauliflower-like patch around vulva, introitus, anus, vagina, cervix.
    HPV (genital warts)
  68. Clusters of small, shallow vesicles with surrounding erythema that erupt on genitals & inner thighs.
    Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2
  69. Clusters of vesicles accompanied by episodes of local pain, dysuria, & fever (inguinal adenopathy, edema).
    Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2
  70. Length of infection of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2.
    • Initial = 1-7 days
    • Recurrent = 3-10 days w/ milder symptoms
  71. Gravida.
    number of PREGNANCIES
  72. Para.
    number of BIRTHS
  73. Why do the changes in menopause occur?
    generally b/c cells in reproductive tract are estrogen dependent
  74. What causes anal pain with BM?
    hemorrhoids (swollen tissue sticks out from anus)
  75. S/S of fecal impaction.
    • constipation or diarrhea
    • abdominal cramping & bloating
  76. An abnormal growth of tissue projecting from a mucous membrane
  77. Intense perianal itching manifested by red, raised, thickened, excoriated skin around the anus.
    Pururitis Ani
  78. Dry & brittle around anus; swollen & moist with intense itching.
    Pruritis ani
  79. A fecal impaction is a collection of hard, desiccated feces in the rectum which often results from decreased ______ where _______ is reabsorbed from the stool
    • bowel motility
    • increased water
  80. Epispadias.
    Meatus opens on dorsal (upper) side of glans or shaft above a broad, spade-like penis.
  81. _______ is associated with urinary incontinence and pubic bone separation.
  82. Common symptoms of urethral stricture.
    gradual decrease in force of urine
  83. Phimosis.
    • Nonretractable foreskin
    • forms pointy tip with tiny oraface
  84. Urethral stricture.
    • abnormal narrowing of urethra
    • pinpoint, constricted opening at meatus or inside along urethra
  85. Hypospadias.
    • Urethral meatus opens on ventral (under) side of glans, shaft, or at penoscrotal junction.
  86. Groove from meatus to normal location at tip of penis.
  87. Bowel sac herniates through internal inguinal ring, can remain in canal or pass into scrotum.
    Indirect inguinal
  88. Type of hernia in which there is pain with straining.
    Indirect Inguinal
  89. Type of hernia that is usually painless.
    Direct Inguinal
  90. Type of hernia that is behind and through the EXTERNAL inguinal ring.
    Direct Inguinal
  91. Type of hernia which rarely enters the scrotum.
    Direct Inguinal
  92. Type of hernia in which pain may be SEVERE.
  93. Type of hernia which is usually on the right side.
  94. Some normal neurological changes of aging.
    • inability to identify vibrations at the ankle or 
    • position of big toe
    • slower more deliberate gait
    • slightly impaired tactile sensation
  95. Dizziness.
    Lightheadedness AND vertigo
  96. Vertigo.
    A whirling or spinning movement
  97. Sequence for neurologic exam.
    • mental status
    • craial nerves
    • motor system
    • sensory system
    • reflexes
    • (position person sitting up w/ head @ eye level)
  98. Components of Neurologic recheck exam.
    • LOC
    • motor fxn
    • pupillary response
    • vital signs
  99. 3 behaviors rated on GCS.
    • eye opening
    • verbal response
    • motor response
  100. Perform this on people who have neurologic deficits & require periodic assessments.
    neurologic recheck exam
Card Set
Assessment 3
Med Term
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