Chemistry Chapter 7

  1. solution
    • homogeneous mixture of two or more substances dissolved in each other
    • small particles, no settling, cannot filter or dialyze
  2. solvent
    • substance present in a solution in the largest amount
    • aqueous solution: solvent is water
  3. solute
    one or more substances present in a solution is amounts less than that of the solvent
  4. solubility
    how much solute will dissolve in a given quantity of solvent at a specific temp
  5. miscible
    liquids dissolve in each other
  6. immiscible
    liquids do not dissolve in each other
  7. insoluble
    substance does not dissolve in a solvent
  8. concentrated solution
    relatively large amount of solute
  9. dilute solution
    relatively small amount of solute
  10. unsaturated
    • less solute than can be dissolved
    • has not reached limit
  11. saturated
    • maximum solute present
    • limit reached
  12. supersaturated
    • more solute than can be dissolved
    • excess solute
  13. like dissolves like
    • nonpolar solutes dissolve in nonpolar solvents
    • polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents

    *water dissolves ionic compounds
  14. solubility effects - solids in liquids
    • ^ with temp
    • ^ with stirring
    • ^ with smaller particles
    • no effect with ^ pressure
  15. solubility effects - gases in liquids
    • decreases with ^ temp
    • ^ with pressure
  16. Henry's Law
    amout of gas dissolved in solution is directly proportional to pressure of the gas above the solution
  17. concentration
    amount of solute present in a specific quantity of solvent
  18. molarity
    number of moles of solute per volume of solution in liters

    M = moles of solute / liters of solution = mol / L
  19. mass percent
    mass of solute / total mass of solution
  20. electrolyte
    • ionic compounds dissolved in water
    • conducting solution
    • ions present
  21. strong electrolyte
    only ions present (ex. Na+ Cl-)
  22. weak electrolyte
    mixture of both ions and molecules
  23. non-electrolyte
    only molecules present
  24. colloid
    • borderline heterogeneous mixture with larger particles
    • no settling, cannot filter but can dialyze
  25. suspension
    heterogeneous mixture
Card Set
Chemistry Chapter 7
Solutions and Colloids