What is a typical R-value for a strawbale wall?
Name 2 advantages other than R-value to using straw for building.
- Lumber quality decreases over time
- Straw is a secondary waste with low embodied energy
Name two advantages to living in a strawbale building
- Very fire resistant
- Excellent sound insulation
How do you construct a rammed earth wall?
- Set formwork
- Add cohesive soil plus a little cement
- Tamp down layer by layer
Name three alternative building materials other than straw or rammed earth.
- Tires filled with rammed earth
- Shipping containers
What does an MSDS address?
- Health effects
- First aid
- Protective equipment
- Spill-handling procedures
What are the three most costly expenses to a building operator over a 30-year lifespan?
- 1. Employee salary and benefit costs
- 2. Operation and maintenance costs
- 3. Initial construction costs
What are EPPs?
Environmentally Preferable Products: they are required on some tax-funded public projects
What two things do all entities developing standards for EPP agree on?
- Accounting for entire life cycle
- Standards need to be application specific
Name the six sins of greenwashing.
- Hidden trade-off
- No proof
- Lesser of two evils
What is a bioaccumulative pollutant?
When an organism absorbs a toxic substance at a rate greater than that at wheich the substance is lost.
Which 3rd party material certification organization is often cited in LEED credits?
What is Architecture 2030 and what are its goals?
- Group pushing for fossil fuel energy use reduction
- Goal of being carbon neutral (create no more carbon than you capture) by 2030
- Goal to achieve 90% fossil fuel energy reduction by 2025
Are there size limitations to a passive house?
No, but there is a price penalty for exceeding 540 sf/person.
What are the energy use standards for Passive House?
- Less than or equal to 15 kWh/m^2 per year for heating
- Less than or equal to 15 kWh/m^2 per year for cooling
- Less than or equal to 120 kWh/m^2 per year for specific primary demand (All energy demands; water heating, lighting, recepticles, etc.)
What is the main difference between LEED and Passive House standards?
Passive house is only concerned about energy use.
Do solar panels or wind turbines help achieve Passive House standards?
No - energy use is energy use according to Passive House, no matter where it comes from.
What are typical R-values for the roof, walls, and slab of a passive house?
- Roof = 50-90
- Walls = 40-60
- Slab = 30-50
Describe the pros and cons to closed cell foam insulation.
- Pros: high R-value, rigid, acts as a moisture barrier
- Cons: high embodied energy, high cost
What is the difference between pre- and post-consumer waste?
- Preconsumer waste has never made it to the market to be sold. An example would be PVC pipe that was not made correctly or a can of paint that was damaged before getting to the store.
- Postconsumer waste is waste that was manufactured and sold but no longer has value to the consumer. An example would be dead batteries or a burnt out light bulb.
What is a thermal bridge?
It is an area in the building envelope that allows heat conduction to occur. Heat flows through the path of least resistance.
What are two common building materials that are poor insulators?
Glass and metal
What are SIPs?
- Structurally Insulated Panels - a building material that:
- Creates almost no on site waste
- Is easy to assemble
- Has very low air infiltration
- Excellent insulation
- Energy recovery ventilation is usually necessary
- Has a high embodied energy
What are ICFs? Pros and cons?
- Insulated Concrete Forms: formwork for concrete that stays in place as permanent building insulation for energy efficient, cast-in-place, reinforced concrete walls, floors, and roofs
- Pros: excellent sound proofing, near zero local waste
- Cons: experience needed to install, high embodied energy
What is biomasonry? Pros and cons?
- Hemp waste mixed with magnesium oxide that is compacted into blocks.
- Pros: excellent insulation, tornado/earthquake resistant, carbon negative, waterproof/bugproof/fireproof
- Cons: new skills needed, new product so there are a lot of unknowns
What is AAC? Pros and cons?
- Autoclaved Aerated Concrete: highly insulating concrete-based material used for both internal and external construction
- Pros: good insulation, can be produced in any shape or size, fire resistant
- Cons: friable, half of the compressive strength of regular concrete
Name some issues with fiberglass insulation.
- Often installed incorrectly
- No value in fire
- At low temps, the effective R-value drops up to 50%
Name some pros of blown cellulose.
- Can be 100% reusable
- Fire retardant, water resistant, and bug resistant
- Easy, inexpensive, and safe to install
Name some pros and cons of closed cell foam.
- Pros: good insulation values, rigid, air and vapor barrier
- Cons: costly, skills & equipment required to install, very high embodied energy
Name some pros and cons of open cell foam.
- Pros: good insulation values, completely fills cavities, less expensive than closed cell
- Cons: should not be used where water is or could be present, very high embodied energy
Name some pros to cellulose batting.
- Good insulation values
- Recycled material
- 100% reusable
- Fire resistant
- Very low embodied energy
Name some pros and cons of aerogel.
- Pros: very, very good insulator, is translucent (can be used in daylighting applications)
- Cons: fraglie, expensive
What is Passive House?
- A worldwide standard based on energy efficiency
- Based on Carbon 350 ppm target goal
- Tight/well-insulated design
What U.S. sector uses the most energy consumption?
Buildings (over industry and transportation)
What is a challenge to Passive House in the U.S. and Canada?
Different climates than Europe - extreme heat and extreme cold, very wet and very dry
What is the most efficient size for a Passive House?
Around 70,000 sq. ft. for most multi-story buildings
Why does the Passivhaus Institute care about the size of your building?
- Resource reduction
- Building site reduction
Name some rules and concepts of Passive House.
- Air tight
- No dependence on thermal mass
- No excessive passive solar
- No conventional central HVAC
- Stable humidity
- No conventional ducting system
- Daylighting and maintaining low receptacle loads are very important
What is ground loop air intake?
When a trench is dug underground around the building for intake of more temperate air
Name the components that contribute to a material's Life Cycle Analysis.
What is emittance?
- A parameter between 0 and 1 which measures the ability of a warm or hot material to shed some of its heat in the form of infrared radiation
- Most opaque materials are a 0.9
What is SRI?
- Solar Reflective Index: a measure of the roof's ability to reject solar heat
- Standard black roof is 0 and standard white is 100