Lab 11

  1. gyri
    • elevated ridges of cerebral tissue
    • an outward fold of the surface of the cerebral cortex
  2. sulci
    shallow grooves seaparating gyri
  3. central sulcus
    the sulcus separating the frontal and parietal lobes
  4. lateral sulcus
    • the sulcus separating the frontal and temporal lobes
    • the insula lies medial to the lateral sulcus
  5. longitudinal fissure
    deep groove separating the cerebral hemispheres
  6. transverse fissure
    deep groove separating the cerebral hemispheres from the cerebellum
  7. lobes
    areas of the cerebral hemispheres separated by fissures or relatively deep sulci that are consistent among individuals
  8. cerebral cortex
    composed of gray matter. location of our conscious mind
  9. primary motor cortex
    • controls most voluntary motor functions 
    • skeletal muscle movement
  10. premotor cortex
    • controls learned motor skills that are repetitious or have a pattern
    • complex movements
  11. speech center (broca's area)
    controls muscles involved in speech production
  12. primary somatosensory cortex
    identifies regions of the body being stimulated. receives information from sensory receptors located in the skin and from proprioceptors in skeletal muscles
  13. somatosensory association cortex
    integrates information received from the primary somatosensory cortex and enable perception/identification of stimuli
  14. visual area
    receives visual stimuli that originates on the retinas of the eyes (primary visual cortex) and interprets the visual stimuli (visual association area)
  15. auditory area
    receives auditory stimuli that originates from the inner ear (primary auditory cortex) and interprets the auditory stimuli (auditory association area)
  16. olfactory cortex
    receives and interprets smell stimuli
  17. prefrontal cortex (anterior association area)
    involved with our intellect, complex learning ability, recall, and personality. necessary for production of abstract ideas, judgment, reasoning, persistence, long-term planning, concern for others, and conscience
  18. general interpretation (posterior association area)
    area receiving input from all sensory association areas and integrating the incoming signals into a single thought or understanding of a situation
  19. cerebral white matter
    consists primarily of myelinated fibers bundled into tracts. responsible for communication between cerebral areas and between the cerebral cortex and lower CNS centers
  20. commissural fibers
    form tracts (commissures) connecting corresponding gray areas of the two hemispheres
  21. corpus callosum
    largest commissure
  22. association fibers
    form tracts connecting different parts of the same hemisphere
  23. projection fibers
    form tracts that connect the cerebral hemispheres to the lower brain and spinal cord
  24. basal nuclei
    islands of gray matter located deep within the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres. play a roll in the subconscious regulation of muscle movement
  25. thalamus
    gateway to the cerebral cortex
  26. hypothalamus
    autonomic control center of the body
  27. pituitary gland
    not actually part of the hypothalamus but is directly controlled by it. is part of the endocrine system that releases hormones. sits in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone
  28. infundibulum
    stalk of hypothalamic tissue that connects the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus
  29. mammillary bodies
    relay station in the olfactory pathways, contains motor nuclei that control motor reflexes associated with eating
  30. pineal gland
    secretes the hormone melatonin. helps regulate sleep-wake cycle, mood, and reproductive functions
  31. choroid plexus
    produces cerebrospinal fluid
  32. cerebellum
    processes information from cerebral motor cortex, proprioceptors, and visual and equilibrium pathways. provides instructions to cerebral motor cortex and subcortical motor centers that result in proper balance and posture and smooth, coordinated skeletal muscle movements
  33. arbor vitae
    white matter of the cerebellum named for its tree-like appearance. connects cerebellar cortex with cerebellar peduncles
  34. cerebellar peduncles
    contain tracts connecting the brain stem to the cerebellum
  35. brain stem
    produces rigidly programmed, automatic behaviors. pathway between higher and lower neural tracts. associated with 10 of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves
  36. mesencephalon (midbrain)
    plays a role in pain suppression, visual tracking of moving objects, startle response to unexpected sounds, subconscious control of muscle tone and body position, maintaining consciousness. contains nuclei for cranial nerves III and IV
  37. corpora quadirgemina
    largest nucleus in the white matter of the midbrain. composed of the superior and inferior colliculi
  38. superior colliculi
    visual reflex center that coordinates head and eye movement
  39. inferior colliculi
    auditory reflex center that plays a role in reflexive responses to sound
  40. cerebral peduncles
    • contains motor tracts that 
    • 1. connect the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord
    • 2. connect the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum via the pons
  41. substantia nigra
    responsible for releasing the neurotransmitter dopamine. functionally, it is part of the basal nuclei
  42. pons
    relays sensory and motor information to the cerebellum, help regulate respiration. provides tracts for communication between higher brain centers and the medulla oblongata. contains nuclei for cranial nerves V through VIII
  43. medulla oblongata
    plays a role in regulating heart rate, blood vessel diameter, and respiratory rate. provides tracts for all communication between brain and spinal cord. contains nuclei of cranial nerves VIII though XII
  44. decussation of the pyramids
    location where nerve fibers cross over to the opposite side of the body. reason (in part) why the left side of the brain controls the right side of the body and the right side of the brain controls the left side of the body
  45. vestibular nuclei
    nuclei responsible for equilibrium and balance. receives stimuli from the middle ear
  46. limbic system
    • includes portions of the medial cerebrum and diencephalon. function include:
    • 1. control of emotions 
    • 2. linking of the conscious thought of the cerebral cortex with the emotions and autonomic nervous system
    • 3. facilitating memory processing
  47. reticular formation
    • loosely clustered neurons forming three columns along the length of the brain stem. has direct axonal connections with nearly every other part of the brain 
    • keeps your brain awake and alert
  48. skeleton
    layer of bone encasing the brain and spinal cord. the skull encases the brain while the vertebral column encases the spinal cord
  49. meninges
    connective tissue membranes that lie just external to the central nervous system organs
  50. dura mater
    "tough mother"
    tough, leathery, outermost meninx surrounding the brain. is fused to the periosteum of the skull but not of the vertebrae
  51. arachnoid mater
    loose, middle meninx of epithelial tissue with web-like extensions that attach it to the underlying pia mater
  52. pia mater 
    "gentle mother"
    delicate connective tissue with rich supply of blood vessels. clings tightly to the brain
  53. blood-brain barrier
    a selective barrier that allows nutrients to cross by facilitated diffusion but keeps most metabolic waste, toxins, and drugs (except fat soluble substances) out.
  54. epidural space
    space between the vertebral column and dura mater filled with areolar and adipose loose connective tissue. provides additional support and protection to the spinal cord
Card Set
Lab 11
grey box terms for chapter 11 lab