Sociology Chapter 8

  1. What is social inequality?
    Situation where members of society have different amounts of wealth, prestige, or power
  2. What is stratification?
    Structured ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in a society
  3. What is income?
    Salaries and wages
  4. What is wealth?
    inclusive term encompassing all a person's material assets
  5. What are the 4 general systems of stratification?
    1. Slavery

    2. Castes

    3. Estates

    4. Social classes
  6. What is slavery?
    Individuals owned by other people, who treat them as property
  7. Is there more people enslaved today than in world history?
  8. What is castes?
    Hereditary ranks usually religiously dictated and tend to be fixed and immobile

    Generally associated with Hinduism in India
  9. What is estates (feudalism)?
    Peasants worked land leased to them in exchange for military protection and other services
  10. What is class system?
    Social ranking based primarily on economic position in which achieved characteristics can influence social mobility
  11. Rossides uses five-class model to describe U.S. class system they are?
    1. Upper class

    2. Upper-middle class

    3. Lower-middles class

    4. Working class

    5. Lower class
  12. Upper class makes what percent of the U.S. population?
  13. Lower class makes up what percent of the U.S. population?
    20 to 25%
  14. Upper middle class makes up what percent of the U.S. population?
    10%  to 15%
  15. Lower middle class makes up what percent of the U.S. population?
    30 to 35%
  16. What 4 factors contribute to shrinking size of middle class?
    1. Disappearing opportunities for those with little education

    2. Global competition and advances in technology

    3. Growing dependence on temporary workforce

    4. Rise of new growth industries and nonunion workplaces
  17. Working class makes up what percent of the population?
    40 to 45%

    People who hold regular manual or blue-collar jobs
  18. What is class warfare?
    Gulf between rich and everyone else in U.S. grew over last 50 years
  19. What is Karl Marx's view of class differentiation?
    Social relations depend on who controls the primary mode of production
  20. What is capitalism? (part of Karl Marx's view of Class Differentiation)
    Means of production held largely in private hands and main incentive for economic activity is accumulation of profits
  21. What is Bourgeoisie? (part of Karl Marx's view of class differentiation)
    Capitalistic class; owns the means of production
  22. What is proletariat?
    Working class
  23. What is class consciousness? (part of Karl Marx's view of class differentiation)
    Subjective awareness of common vested interests and the need for collective political action to bring about change
  24. What is false consciousness? (Part of Karl Marx's view of class differentiation)
    attitude held by members of class that does not accurately reflect their objective position
  25. What is Max Weber's view of stratification?
    No single characteristic totally defines a person's position within the stratification system
  26. What is the stratification system? (Marx Weber's view of stratification)
    1. Class

    2. Status group

    3. Power
  27. What is class?
    Group of people who have similar level of wealth and income
  28. What is status group?
    People who have the same prestige or lifestyle
  29. What is power?
    Ability to exercise one's will over others
  30. What are interactionists interested in?
    In the importance of social class in shaping a person's lifestyle
  31. What is veblen?
    Top of the social hierarchy typically convert part of their wealth into conspicuous
  32. What is consumption?
    purchase goods not to survive but to flaunt their superior wealth and social standing
  33. What is the functionalist view on stratification?
    Social inequality is necessary so people will be motivated to fill functionally important positions
  34. What is the conflict view of stratification?
    Human beings prone to conflict over scarce resources such as wealth, status, and power

    Stratification major source of societal tension

    Leads to instability and social change
  35. What is dominant ideology?
    Set of cultural beliefs and practices that helps to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests
  36. What is Lenski's viewpoint of statification?
    As a society advances technologically, it becomes capable of producing surplus of goods

    Emergence of surplus resources expands possibilities for inequality

    Allocation of surplus goods and services reinforces social inequality
  37. What is objective method?
    Class largely viewed as a statistical category

    occupation, income, education, place of residence
  38. What is prestige?
    Respect and admiration an occupation holds in society
  39. What is esteem?
    Reputation a specific person has earned within an occupation
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Sociology Chapter 8
chapter 8