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  1. structure
    • Small and inconspicuous and can form large masses in favorable habitats
  2. Structure of organs
    Leaves: single layer of undiffentiated cells; two rows of equal sized leaves and a third row of smaller leaves
  3. Location
    Leafy: tropics and some in temperate regionsThalloid: moist, shaded banks or greehouses
  4. Sexual Reproduction
    Most gametophytes develop directly from spores, but some form a protonema-like filament of cells, from which the gametophyte developsContinues to grow from an apical meristem

    In Marchantia: the gametangia are borne on gametophores, which grow perpendicular to the ground
  5. Asexual Reproduction

    Gemmae cups (located on the dorsal surface of gametophyte)
  6. Structure of gametophytes
    Its gametophyte has a liver shaped outline; initiated with meiosis; unicellular 

    • Antheridia borne on short side branch with leaves called androecium
  7. Structure of sporophytes
    Sporophyte generation: consists of foot, stalk, capsule, elaters (with wall thickenings), which are sensitive to slight changes in humidity and twist in response; some have a perianth surrounding (tubular sheath); initiated with fertilization; dependent on gametophyte; unbranched; no stomata
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