Management Exam #3

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  1. Definition of motivation
    the set of forces that initiates, directs, and makes people persist in their efforts to accomplish a goal
  2. Definition of ability, role perceptions, situational factors and motivations as it relates to the MARS model and job performance
    Job performance (how well someone performs the requirements of the job) = MOTIVATION (effort, the degree to which someone works hard to do the job well) x ABILITY (the degree to which workers possess the knowledge, skills, and talent needed to do a job well) x SITUATIONAL CONSTRAINTS (factors beyond the control of individual employees, such as tools, policies, and resources). Also, consider ROLE PERCEPTIONS (the degree of understanding of the specifics, importance, and preferred behaviors to achieve the task
  3. Definition of needs
    physical and psychological requirements that must be met to ensure survival and well-being
  4. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and its implications
    1. Physiological (food, water, sex, shelter) 2. Safety (protection against threat and deprivation) 3. Social belongingness (friendship, affection, belonging, love) 4. Ego/esteem (independence, achievement, freedom, status, recognition, self-esteem) 5. Self-actualization (realizing one's full potential). Implications=employees have different needs at different times--the needs are interdependent--most employees want to achieve self-actualization; Self-actualization is a growth need, the others are deficiency needs
  5. McClelland's 3 Learned Needs and its implications
    Need for Achievement--accomplish challenging goals through their own effort, working alone and taking risks; Need for Affiliation--seek approval of others, conform to their wishes and expectations, avoid conflicts (managers should not be this); Need for Power--exercise control over others, concerned about maintaining their leadership positions; Personalized power (power to advance personal interests) vs. socialized power (to help others)
  6. Two types of rewards
    Extrinsic (tangible and visible, given to employees on the performance of specific tasks or behaviors) vs. intrinsic (natural rewards associated with performing a task for its own sake)
  7. Components of equity theory
    People are motivated to work when they perceive that they are being treated fairly compared to others. Ratio of Outcomes(self)/Inputs(self) = Outcomes(referent)/Inputs(referent)
  8. Methods employees use to restore equity
    Decreasing or withholding inputs (employees perform at lower level or ask the better off worker to work harder); Increasing outcomes (asking for a pay increase); Rationalize/distort inputs to outcomes (change mindset to believe the coworker is doing more); Change the referent (compare themselves to someone different; Leave--to escape the inequitable situation
  9. Definition of expectancy theory and its components (i.e., three events and beliefs)
    People will be motivated to the extent to which they believe that their efforts will lead to good performance, that good performance will be rewarded, and that they will be offered attractive rewards. 3 events = Effort, Performance, and Outcome. Beliefs--Valence:the attractiveness or desirability of various rewards or outcomes; Expectancy--the perceived relationship between effort and performance; Instrumentality--the perceived relationship between performance and rewards
  10. Reinforcement theory and the 4 processes involved; positive and negative reinforcement; punishment and extinction
    Behavior is a function of its consequences. Positive reinforcement--increases desirable behavior by following them with desirable consequences; Negative reinforcement--removing negative consequence after good behavior; Punishment--adding negative consequences to decrease bad behavior; Extinction--when a positive consequence is no longer allowed to follow a previously reinforced behavior
  11. 2 major components of Reinforcement theory
    Reinforcement contingencies--relationships between specific behaviors and specific consequences; Schedule of reinforcement--specifies which behaviors will be reinforced, which consequences will follow those behaviors, and how those consequences will be delivered
  12. Definition of Goal Setting Theory
    People will be motivated to the extent that they accept specific, challenging goals and receive feedback that indicates their progress toward goal achievement
  13. Characteristics of good goals
    SMART-Specific, Measurable, Achievable, realistic, Time-relevant
  14. 5 core characteristics of jobs that can be redesigned according to the Job Characteristics Model
    Skill variety--different skills performed in the job; Task Identity--degree to which a job requires completion of the whole and identifiable piece of work; Task significance--degree to which a job impacts other people's lives; Autonomy--if the job gives workers discretion, freedom, and independence; Feedback--amount of feedback the job provides to workers
  15. 3 internally motivating states in the JCM
    Experience work as meaningful; Experience responsibility for work outcomes; knowledge of Results of the Work Activities
  16. Definition of empowerment
    feeling of intrinsic motivation, in which workers perceive their work to have meaning and perceive themselves to be competent, having an impact, and capable of self-determination
  17. Definition of job satisfaction
    how content an individual is with his job
  18. the importance of feedback in multiple management areas
    it keeps employee motivation up from various angles; lets them know if they need to work harder or get a new strategy
  19. Reasons why strategic human resources can create competitive advantages
    People create value--talent is rare--a group of well-chosen, motivated people is difficult to imitate--people can be organized for success
  20. 3 stages of HR planning process
    Planning; Programming; Evaluating
  21. Definition of labor demand and labor supply forecasts
    Labor demand forecasts--determining how many and what type of people are needed; Labor supply forecasts--how many and what types of employees the organization will actually have
  22. Components of a Job Analysis
    Work Activities; Tools and equipment used to do the job; Context in which the job is performed; the personnel requirements for performing the job
  23. Difference between job description and job specification
    Job description--basic tasks, duties, responsibilities of the job; it's about the job itself. Job specification--summary of the qualifications needed to successfully perform the job; describes the skills, knowledge and abilities needed to do the job
  24. Adv and disadv. of internal and external recruiting
    INTERNAL--Adv. You know the employee; Employee knows organization; employees may be motivated by advancement; outside recruitment may demoralize employees. Disadv. Limited applicant pool; inhibit a company from changing the nature or goals of the business by bringing in outside candidates. EXTERNAL--Adv. Brings in new blood; Can inspire motivation; Sources of applicants include job boards, company web sites, employee referrals, newspaper ads, and college campus recruiting. Disadv. More difficult to do; adjustment and orientation time is longer; morale problems can develop among those employees within the organization who feel qualified for the job
  25. Definitions of 3 types of interviews
    • Structured--standardized set of questions
    • Unstructured--different questions for different interviewees
    • Semi-structured--hybrid of the two
  26. Definition of selection
    the process of gathering information about job applicants to decide who should be offered a job
  27. Types of selection tests
    Specific Ability Tests--measures your ability to do a specific thing, like the SAT; Cognitive ability tests--measures abilities in perceptual speed, verbal comprehension, numerical aptitude, general reasoning, and spatial aptitude; Biodata--extensive biographical questioning; work sample tests--measures a sample of your work
  28. Difference between cognitive ability tests and other selection tests
    Cognitive ability tests measure your ability to learn something new, so it's a better indicator of job performance
  29. 4 phases of a training program
    Needs assessment--what needs training?; Training program design--the actual design of the program; Delivering the program--training people; Evaluation--how did it do?
  30. 4 ways to evaluate a training program
    Reactions--how trainees felt; Learning--how much the employees improved or learned; Behavior--how much did employee behavior improve; Results--has it affected job performance?
  31. 2 purposes of performance appraisal
    Reviewing an employee's achievements, difficulties, and progress, and using that information to identify and plan training or anything else to help the employee
  32. 3 major factors involved in compensation systems
    Job evaluation--determines the worth of the job; Pay-level decisions--whether to pay at a level above, below, or at current wages; Pay-variability--if the pay differs based on personal or organizational success
  33. Required versus optional benefits
    Required--Worker's comp, Social Security, Medical insurance, unemployment insurance; Optional--pension, health, hospital insurance, retirement programs, dental plans
  34. Methods used to terminate employees
    Downsizing--not enough jobs, too many employees; termination--dismissal of employees for bad performance or other reasons; employment at will--an employee may be terminated for any reason; Termination interviews--interview about the employee's dismissal
  35. Definition and implications of Downsizing
    cutting employees when functions are consolidated and new technologies and business practices eliminate jobs; can make firms more agile, can be traumatic, should be a last-resort;
  36. Difference between functional and dysfunctional turnover
    Functional--people who leave are underperformers; Dysfunctional--people who leave are the best employees
  37. Impact of age and disability discrimination
  38. Definition of the glass ceiling
    invisible barrier that makes it difficult for women and minorities to rise above a certain level in the organization
  39. Definition of sexual harassment
    unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, or other verbal or physical conducts of a sexual nature occurs
  40. 2 types of sexual harassment
    Quid pro quo--when employment outcomes require an individual to be sexually harrassed; Hostile work environment when demeaning sexually related behavior creates a hostile work environment
  41. Definition of disparate treatment and adverse impact
    Disparate treatment--when people, despite being qualified, are not given the same hiring, promotion, or other opportunities as other employees because of discrimination; Adverse impact--when employees are harmed or disadvantaged because they are hired, promoted, or trained at lower rates than others
  42. Difference between diversity management and affirmative action
    Diversity management--moving beyond legislated mandates to embrace a proactive business philosophy that sees differences as positive; Affirmative action--special efforts to recruit and hire qualified members of groups that have been discriminated against by the organization in the past
  43. Ways diversity can lead to a competitive advantage
  44. Challenges in managing diversity
    Overcoming unexamined assumptions, lack of cohesiveness, misunderstandings, different interpretations
  45. Two main types of diversity training
    Awareness training and skill-based diversity training
  46. Definition of surface level and deep level diversity
    Surface level--race, gender, etc.?; deep-level--disposition, personality
  47. Definition of each of the Big 5 personality traits
    • Openness to experience--curious,
    • Conscientiousness--how much they care
    • Extraversion
    • Agreeableness
    • Neuroticism--emotional stability
Card Set
Management Exam #3
Management Exam #3
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