OCA midterm 2: Prematurity Disorders

  1. Full term pregnancy
    late preterm
    age of viability
    • Full term pregnancy: 38-42 weeks
    • Premature/preterm: before 38
    • Late preterm: between 34-37
    • Post-term: after 42
    • Age of viability: 24 weeks GA is the low end of viability
  2. Gestational Age
    from moment of conception to birth
  3. Chronological Age
    Age of child from day of birth
  4. Corrected Age
    • Chronological Age + time of prematurity
    • correct for prematurity up to 2 years!
  5. Size & weight designations
    • Low birth weight: 5.5 lbs
    • Very low birth weight: 3.3 lbs
    • Extremely low birth weight: 2.2 lbs
    • Ultra low birth weight: 1.6 lbs
  6. Intracranial hemorrhage
    meninges are fragile, kind of like a CVA, can cause CP
  7. Intraventricular hemorrhage
    • bleeding from blood vessels lining the ventricles
    • most common below 32 weeks
  8. Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP)
    • maladaptive growth of blood vessels in the retina
    • loss of vision
  9. Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)
    no surfactant to open alveoli
  10. Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD)
    inflammation/scarring of lungs from from being on a ventilator machine
  11. Apnea of Prematurity
    a stop in breathing due to immaturity of CNS or low muscle tone
  12. Hyperbillirubinemia "Jaundice"
    liver has not matured
  13. Gastroesophageal Reflux (GER)
    sphincter muscles do not maintain closure and stomach acid comes back up, causes throwing up (do not want to eat) & aspiration (pneumonia)
  14. Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC)
    death of tissues of intestinal walls, decreases blood flow to intestines
  15. Other complications of prematurity
    • hydrocephalus
    • CP
    • vision/hearing problems
    • anemia
    • learning disabilities
    • developmental delays
  16. Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)
    • the vessel that connects the Aorta and Pulmonary Artery does not close up, leads to heart failure and lack of oxygen to brain
    • brain damage
  17. Arterial Septal Defects (ASD)
    Ventricular Septal Defects (VSD)
    • ASD: hole in seprum between L & R atria
    • *VSD: hole in septum between L& R ventricles
    • -more blood goes to the lungs
    • -feeding issues, SOB, fatigue with exercise, increased respiratory infection, delayed growth
  18. Tetralogy of Fallot
    • 4 things that happen all together
    • pulmonary valve/arterial stenosis
    • VSD
    • right ventricle hypertrophy (enlargement)
    • overriding of ventrical septum by aorta
    • CAUSES:
    • **central sionosis (child appears blue due to decrease in oxygen to body)
    • failure to thrive
    • clubbing of fingers & toes
    • feeding difficulties
  19. Transposition of the Great Vessels (TGV)
    • Aorta and Pulmonary Artery SWITCH sides!
    • oxygentated blood does not go to the body
    • effects:
    • -sionosis (blueness)
    • -congestive heart failure
    • -respiratory distress
  20. Asthma
    • chronic childhood disorder
    • narrowed airways "wheeze"
  21. Cystic Fibrosis
    • Many issues:
    • trouble breathing: LOTS of respiratory issues- pneumonia, viscus mucus, SOB)
    • delayed growth
    • fatty bowel movements
    • trouble digesting and eliminating foods
    • nose polyps
    • enlarged heart
    • frequent lung infections
    • salty skin
    • abnormal pancreas
    • gallstones
    • ***POSTURAL DRAINAGE can help! positioning child so gravity helps.
  22. Maternal (Intra-utero) infections
    -STORCH, syphillis, toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes plus, HIV
  23. Encephalitis (infection)
    • inflammation of brain (viral, bacterial, fungal)
    • intellectual disability
    • behavioral disabilty
    • seizures
    • learning disability
    • neuro/motor deficits
  24. Meningitis (infection)
    • *inflammation of meninges
    • neuromotor
    • visual/auditory
    • seizures
    • learning disabilities
Card Set
OCA midterm 2: Prematurity Disorders
OCA midterm 2: Prematurity Disorders