SOCI 1125

  1. Social Stratification
    The way society is organized in layers/strata
  2. Wealth
    Your wealth is what you own
  3. Income
    Income is the amount of money earned in a given period
  4. Human Capital
    Investment in education and training
  5. Social Capital
    Networks or connections that individuals possess
  6. Cultural Capital
    Impression management skills and ability to influence others
  7. Feminization of Poverty
    • Theory that:
    • 1. women more likely to be low-income then men
    • 2. low-income gap between women and men is growing
  8. Individual level explanations
    • focus on the attributes of people who are poor
    • how they differ from people who are not poor
  9. Class determined by
    a person's relationship to the means of production OR source of that person's income
  10. Critical Evaluation of Marx's Theory (3)
    • 1. A Middle-class emerged; contradicting his two-class rival theory
    • 2. Investment in technology made it possible for workers to earn more and work less
    • 3. Communism took root in semi-industrial countries (not highly developed as he predicted)
    • Instead of evolving into classless societies, new forms of privilege emergered
  11. Functionalist Theory of David & Moore
    "Theory of Stratification"
    • Asserts the inevitability of social stratification
    • Incentives: Money and prestige
    • Social stratification is necessary(functional) because the prospect of high rewards pushes people to get a better education
  12. Critical Evaluation of Functionalism
    • 1. Stresses how inequality helps discover talent; but fails o recognize the undiscovered talent due to inequality
    • 2. Fails to examine how advantages are passed from generation to generation
  13. Weber's Compromise
    • Asserts that emergence of classless society is highly unlikely
    • In some instances, some people can act to lower the level of poverty
  14. Weber's 4 main classes that exist in capitalist societies
    • 1. large property owners
    • 2. small property owners
    • 3. propertyless but relatively high educated
    • 4. well-paid employees
  15. Weber: Status groups
    Status groups differ from one another in the prestige or social honor they enjoy in their life of style
  16. Weber: Parties
    not just political groups; organizations that seek to impose their will on others by power
  17. Social Mobility
    Movement up or down the stratification system
  18. Intragrational Mobility
    Social mobility that occurs within a single generation
  19. Intergenerational Mobility
    Social mobility that occurs between generations
  20. Ascription-based Stratification System
    A system in which the allocations of rank depends on he features with which a person is born
  21. Achievement-based stratification system
    A system in which the allocations of rank depends on a person's accomplishments
  22. Has global inequality increased or decreased over time?
    • Between 1975 and 2000, the annual income gap between the 20 richest countries and the rest of the world grew enormously 
    • Nearly half of the world's population lives on $2 a day
  23. Two main theories that seek to explain the origins and persistence of global inequality
    • 1. Modernization Theory: Functionalist Approach
    • 2. Dependency Theory: Conflict Approach
  24. Modernization Theory
    Global inequality results from various dysfunctional characteristics of poor societies themselves

    • Lack of investment capital
    • Western-style business techniques
    • Stable Western-style governments
    • Western mentality
  25. Dependency Theory: Conflict approach
    • Holds that global inequality is the result of patterns of domination and submission between rich and poor countries
    • From this point of view, rich countries have impoverished poor countries in order to enrich themselves
  26. Core countries
    Capitalist countries that are the world's major sources of capital and technology (U.S, Japan)
  27. Peripheral Countries
    The world's mahor sources of raw materials and cheap labour
  28. Semi-peripheral Countries
    That are former colonies and that are making considerable headway in their attempt to become prosperous
  29. Semi-Peripheral countries differ from Peripheral countries in 4 main ways
    • 1. Type of colonialism
    • 2. Geopolitical position
    • 3. State Policy 
    • 3. Social structure
  30. Geopolitical Position
    i.e.  other countries (in contrast with Israel) with less strategic importance to the U.S. received less help in their drive to industrialization
  31. State Policy
Card Set
SOCI 1125
Social Stratification