Aristotle Philosophy

  1. Aristotle is a form of
    Virtue Theory
  2. Happiness
    aka eudamonia - good spirit/human fulfillment

    An activity of the soul in accordance with virtue (excellence)
  3. Human Soul
    principle of life not spirit
  4. 4 parts of human soul
    • Rational (Change and Changeless)
    • Not Rational (Nutritive and Appetite/Desire)
  5. Rational Change
    • Practical Wisdom
    • ie Common sense, thinking things thorugh, how to act in dif situations. No young person has this [yet]!
  6. Rational Changeless
    • Theoretical Wisdom- Philosophical contemplation
    • ie God (thinking thinking about thinking)

    **true human happiness esta aqui!**
  7. Not Rational Nutritive
    • Focused on nutrition and growth
    • ie life of a plant (brain dead = vegetable)
  8. Not Rational Appetite/Desire
    • Passion and emotion
    • ie life of an animal
  9. 4 types of lives that lead to happiness
    • 1. Pleasure (physical)
    • 2. Honor ie Political Activity (power)
    • 3. Wealth
    • *4. Contemplation (true happiness)
  10. 2 Criteria to judge by when thinking about happiness
    • 1. Self sufficient
    • 2. Seek it for itself

    honor fails both of those bc other people give it (so not 1) and attain it to get other things (so not 2)
  11. Moral Virtue/Excellence (arete)

    human excellence: what makes you an excellence?
    Not really principle to live by but you can be the best you
  12. Moral Virtue/Excellence (arete)
    State (settled disposition/character trait) consisting in a mean, relative to us and guided by practical wisdom

    ie courage, if situation calls for it he'll always be courageous
  13. Virtue is a mean or two things
    • ie courage
    • excess = rashness
    • defect = cowardice
    • in between = courage

    *middle as in relative to you and relative to situation
  14. How do you get a virtue?
    you get a virtue by practicing it and making it a habit
  15. Practical Wisdom
    state grasping the truth involving reason and concerned with action about human goods

    • ability to know how, when, where, etc of applying a virtue
    • ie if you have courage shows you when to use it etc
  16. Example: Cleverness
    allows you to get what you want

    • goal is good, cleverness is good
    • goal is bad, cleverness is bad

    practical wisdom wants the good!
  17. If have practical wisdom
    Will have moral virtues

    But young people don't have practical wisdom, comes through time and experience
  18. About Universal and Particular Knowledge
    ie if health is moral virtue, you desire health

    • need to know white meat is healthy - universal claim
    • This (chicken, turkey, etc) is white meat - particular knowledge
  19. Moral Virtue + Knowledge (universal and particular)
    leads to moral action/virtuous action

    • honesty is virtue
    • desire to be honest
    • honesty is good (universal claim)
    • returning a wallet is honest (particular knowledge)

    thus you return the wallet
  20. Moral and Practical Wisdom
    • Moral perfects your desires so you desire good things
    • Practical wisdom gives you the means to attain those desires
  21. Incontinence
    • Knows what is right
    • Does not fully desire it
    • Does what is wrong
  22. Continence
    • Knows what is right
    • Does not fully desire it
    • BUT is able to know and do the right thing
  23. Virtue
    • Knows what is right
    • Desires what is right
    • Does the right thing

    triple win!
  24. Example: diet is a virtue

    There's a giant chocolate cake on a plate
    • Virtuous sees it and walks away
    • Continence wants to eat the cake but resists
    • Incontinenece sees it, wants it, and knows not to eat it, but eats it anyways
Card Set
Aristotle Philosophy
Aristotle Philosophy Ethics