Physiology Exam Chapter 9

  1. The sympathetic nervous system exerts___________ effects on target organs, which are activated by releasing epinephrine,norepinephrine and related substances into effector tissue
  2. The parasympathetic nervous system exerts___________ effects on target organs, which are activated by releasing acetylcholine and related substances into effector tissues.
  3. The parasympathetic nervous system exerts___________ effects on target organs, which are activated by releasingacetylcholine and related substances into effector tissues.
  4. The substance that causes the relaxation of blood vessels so blood enters the erectile tissue of the penis
  5. differences between Parasympathetic and Sympathetic
  6. 4 cranial nerves that are part of the Parasympathetic
    • 3: Occulomotor
    • 7: Facial
    • 9: Glossopharyngeal
    • 10: Vagus
  7. Sympathetic =
    Fight or Flight
  8. Parasympathetic =
    Rest and Digest
  9. Effectors are
    things that are being controlled
  10. synapse occurs in the swollen areas on the nerve called
  11. Effector in the autonomic
    • cardiac muscle
    • smooth muscle
    • glands
  12. effector Somatic Motor
    Skeletal Muscles
  13. Presence of ganglia
    • Somatic = No Ganglia
    • Autonomic = yes
  14. number of neuron form CNS to effector Somatic  vs Autonomic
    • Somatic = 1
    • Autonomic = 2
  15. type of nerve fibers
    somatic vs autonomic
    somatic = fast-conducting thick and myelinated

    autonomic = slow-conducting, preganglonic fibers lightly myelinated but thin, post ganglionic fibers unlyelinated and very thin
  16. Somatic motor neurons release _____
    only ACH which is always excitatory
  17. Autonomic neurons release ______
    mainly ACH and norepinephrine nut may be excitatory or inhibitory
  18. preganglionic neurons come form ______ in sympathetic and from _______ in parasympathetic
    Sympathetic = Thoracolum

    Parasympathetic = Craniosacral
  19. adrenal gland has a
    "direct Hook up"

    there is no synapse

    • he makes the 2 hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) for fight or flight
    • as soon as fight or flight starts he gets a shock that says release
  20. parasympathetic synapse
    1st Long, 2nd Short
  21. Sympathetic synapse
    neurons hand off the message at the ganglia
    • 1st Short
    • 2nd Long
  22. the sympathetic chain of ganglia runs along both sides of the spinal cord.
  23. Occulomotor Nerve
    innervates the involuntary muscles of the eye
  24. Facial Nerve #7
    innervates nasal mucosa, pharynx, palate and lacrimal glands and salivary glands
  25. Glossopharyngeal #9
    innervates parotid salivary gland
  26. Vagus #10
    innervates heart, lungs, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver and intestine
  27. during parasympathetic the sacral nerves ____
    innervate lower part of the large intestine, rectum, urinary and reproductive organs
  28. General Functions 

    • activate body for fight or flight through the release of norepinephrine from postganglionic neurons and epinephrine from adrenal gland
    • prepares body for intense physical activity by ^HR and blood glucose levels and diverting blood to skeletal muscles
    • Tonically regulates heart, blood vessels and other organs
  29. General Functions

    • the parasympathetic is antagonist to the sympathetic division
    • Allows Rest and Digest through the release of ACh from postganglionic neurons
    • Slows the HR, and increases digestive activities
  30. Cholinergic Synaptic Transmission
    ACh is the NT used by all preganglionic neurons (parasympathetic and Sympathetic)
  31. Adrenergic Transmission
  32. NO erection
    • Nitric Oxide
    • causes the smooth muscle in the blood vessels to relax, they open up and the blood can go in
  33. Cholinergic Effects are caused
    • ACh is the neurotransmitter
    • Pupils constrict
    • decrease HR, decrease BP
    • increase Digestion
    • Bronchoconstriction
    • Store Glucose
    • Blood goes to Digestive and Skin
  34. Adrenergic Effects
    • Neurotransmitter is Norepinephrine
    • Pupil Dilate
    • increase HR, increase BP
    • decrease digestion
    • Bronchodilator
    • Release Glucose
    • Blood goes to the skeletal muscles and heart
  35. mimetic
  36. Lytic
  37. cooperative effects
    • occur when both divisions produce different effects that work together to promote a single action
    • erection and ejaculation: para causes vasodilation and erection sym causes ejaculation
    • urination: para aids in bladder contraction, sym helps bladder muscle tone to control urination
  38. complementary effects
    • occur when both divisions produce similar effects on the same target
    • Salivary gland secretion: para stimulates secretion of watery saliva, sym constricts blood vessels so the secretion is thicker
  39. The neurotransmitter released by the preganglionic neuron
  40. Parasympathetic have ______________ganglia
    terminal ganglia

    they synapse on ganglia located near or in  the effector organs
  41. An example of a process where the two divisions cooperative
    • point and shoot
    • urination
  42. The 4 cranial nerves that are part of the parasympathetic division
    • 3 Occulomotor
    • 7 Facial
    • 9 Glossopharyngeal
    • 10 Vagus
Card Set
Physiology Exam Chapter 9
Chapter 9