Bio Exam 3 All Vocabs

  1. acoelom
    A solid-bodied animal lacking a cavity between the gut and outer body wall. (no body cavity)
  2. alimentary canal
    A com- plete digestive tract, consisting of a tube running between a mouth and an anus.
  3. alveoli
    One of the dead-end air sacs where gas exchange occurs in a mammalian lung.
  4. ammonia
    A small, toxic molecule (NH3) produced by nitrogen fixation or as a metabolic waste product of protein and nucleic acid metabolism. ammonite A member of a group of shelled
  5. amniotes
    Member of a clade of tetrapods named for a key derived character, the amniotic egg, which contains specialized membranes, including the fluid-filled amnion, that protect the embryo. Amniotes include mammals as well as birds and other reptiles.
  6. amphibian
    Member of the tetrapod class Amphibia, including salamanders, frogs, and caecilians.
  7. anterior vs. posterior
    Anterior is Pertaining to the front, or head, of a bilaterally symmetrical animal.

    posterior is Pertaining to the rear, or tail end, of a bilaterally symmetrical animal.
  8. arbuscular mycorrhizae
    A symbiotic fungus whose hyphae grow through the cell wall of plant roots and extend into the root cell (enclosed in tubes formed by invagination of the root cell plasma membrane).
  9. archenteron
    The endoderm- lined cavity, formed during gastrulation, that develops into the digestive tract of an animal.
  10. arterioles
    A vessel that conveys blood between an artery and a capillary bed
  11. arthropod
    A segmented ecdysozoan with a hard exoskeleton and jointed appendages. Familiar examples include insects, spiders, millipedes, and crabs.
  12. ascending limb of nephron
  13. basidium
    A reproductive appendage that pro- duces sexual spores on the gills of mushrooms (club fungi).
  14. capillary beds
    A network of capillaries in a tissue or organ.
  15. cephalization
    An evolu- tionary trend toward the concentration of sensory equipment at the anterior end of the body.
  16. choanocyte
    A flagellated feeding cell found in sponges. Also called a collar cell, it has a collar-like ring that traps food particles around the base of its flagellum
  17. chondrichthyans
    Member of the class Chondrichthyes, vertebrates with skeletons made mostly of cartilage, such as sharks and rays.
  18. chordate
    Member of the phylum Chordata, ani- mals that at some point during their develop- ment have a notochord; a dorsal, hollow nerve cord; pharyngeal slits or clefts; and a muscular, post-anal tail
  19. chytrids
    Member of the fungal phylum Chytridiomycota, mostly aquatic fungi with flagellated zoospores that represent an early- diverging fungal lineage.
  20. cnidocyte
    A specialized cell unique to the phylum Cnidaria; contains a capsule- like organelle housing a coiled thread that, when discharged, explodes outward and functions in prey capture or defense
  21. coelom
    A body cavity lined by tissue derived only from mesoderm
  22. coenocytic
    A fungus that lacks septa and hence whose body is made up of a continuous cytoplasmic mass that may contain hundreds or thousands of nuclei.
  23. conidia
    A haploid spore produced at the tip of a specialized hypha in ascomycetes during asexual reproduction.
  24. conodonts
    An early, soft-bodied vertebrate with prominent eyes and dental elements.
  25. countercurrent exchange
    The exchange of a substance or heat between two fluids flowing in opposite directions. For example, blood in a fish gill flows in the opposite direction of water passing over the gill, maximizing diffusion of oxygen into and carbon dioxide out of the blood.
  26. craniates
    A chordate with a head.
  27. descending limb of nephron
  28. deuterostome
    Second mouth
  29. dikaryotic
    Referring to a fungal mycelium with two haploid nuclei per cell, one from each parent.
  30. dinosaur
    Member of an extremely diverse clade of reptiles varying in body shape, size, and habitat. Birds are the only extant dinosaurs
  31. diploblastic vs. triploblastic
    Diploblastic is referring to Having two germ layers.

    triploblastic Possessing three germ layers: the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm.
  32. dorsal
    Pertaining to the top of an animal with radial or bilateral symmetry.
  33. double circulation
    A circulatory system consisting of separate pulmonary and systemic circuits, in which blood passes through the heart after completing each circuit.
  34. ectoderm
    The outermost of the three primary germ layers in animal embryos; gives rise to the outer covering and, in some phyla, the nervous system, inner ear, and lens of the eye.
  35. ectothermic vs. endothermic
    Ectothermic is Referring to organisms for which external sources provide most of the heat for temperature regulation.

    Endothermic is Referring to organisms that are warmed by heat generated by their own metabolism. This heat usually maintains a relatively stable body temperature higher than that of the external environment.
  36. endoderm
    The innermost of the three primary germ layers in animal embryos; lines the archenteron and gives rise to the liver, pancreas, lungs, and the lining of the digestive tract in species that have these structures.
  37. endophyta
    A fungus that lives inside a leaf or other plant part without causing harm to the plant
  38. euryhaline
    organisms are able to adapt to a wide range of salinities
  39. eutherian
    Placental mammal; mammal whose young complete their embry- onic development within the uterus, joined to the mother by the placenta.
  40. exoenzymes
    enzymes produced within the cell, then released outside of the cell to begin the process of extracellular digestion
  41. exoskeleton
    A hard encasement on the surface of an animal, such as the shell of a mollusc or the cuticle of an arthropod, that provides protection and points of attachment for muscles.
  42. gastrovascular cavity
    A central cavity with a single opening in the body of certain animals, including cnidarians and flatworms, that func- tions in both the digestion and distribution of nutrients.
  43. gill vs. systemic circulation
    gill circulation picks up oxygen and disposes of carbon dioxide across the capillary walls

    systemic circulation is The branch of the circulatory system that supplies oxygenated blood to and carries deoxygenated blood away from organs and tissues throughout the body.
  44. gills
    the paired respiratory organ of fishes and some amphibians, by which oxygen is extracted from water flowing over surfaces within or attached to the walls of the pharynx.
  45. glomerulus
    A ball of capillaries surrounded by Bowman’s capsule in the nephron and serving as the site of filtration in the vertebrate kidney.
  46. gnathostome
    Member of the vertebrate subgroup possessing jaws.
  47. hagfish
    Hagfish, the class Myxini, are eel-shaped, slime-producing, marine fish. They are the only known living animals that have a skull but no vertebral column.
  48. hemolymph
    In invertebrates with an open circulatory system, the body fluid that bathes tissues.
  49. heterokaryon
    A fungal mycelium that contains two or more haploid nuclei per cell.
  50. hyperosmotic
    Referring to a solution that, when surrounding a cell, will cause the cell to lose water.
  51. Hyphae
    One of many connected filaments that collectively make up the mycelium of a fungus.
  52. hypoosmotic
    Referring to a solution that, when surrounding a cell, will cause the cell to take up water.
  53. interstitial fluid
    The fluid filling the spaces between cells in most animals.
  54. invertebrate
    An animal without a backbone. Invertebrates make up 95% of animal species
  55. isosmotic
    Referring to a solution that, when surrounding a cell, causes no net movement of water into or out of the cell.
  56. karyogamy
    In fungi, the fusion of haploid nuclei contributed by the two parents; occurs as one stage of sexual reproduction, preceded by plasmogamy.
  57. lamprey
    Lampreys are an order of jawless fish, the adult of which is characterized by a toothed, funnel-like sucking mouth
  58. lancelets
    Member of the clade Cephalochordata, small blade-shaped marine chordates that lack a backbone
  59. larva
    A free-living, sexually immature form in some animal life cycles that may differ from the adult animal in morphology, nutrition, and habitat.
  60. larynx
    The portion of the respiratory tract containing the vocal cords; also called the voice box
  61. lateral line system
    A mechanoreceptor system consisting of a series of pores and receptor units along the sides of the body in fishes and aquatic amphibians; detects water movements made by the animal itself and by other moving objects.
  62. lobe-fin fish
    Member of the vertebrate clade Sarcopterygii, osteichthyans with rod- shaped muscular fins, including coelacanths, lungfishes, and tetrapods.
  63. malpigian tubule
    A unique excretory organ of insects that empties into the digestive tract, removes nitrogenous wastes from the hemolymph, and functions in osmoregulation.
  64. mammal
    Member of the class Mammalia, amniotes that have hair and mammary glands
  65. mandibles
    One of a pair of jaw-like feeding appendages found in myriapods, hexapods, and crustaceans.
  66. marsupial
    A mammal, such as a koala, kangaroo, or opossum, whose young complete their embryonic development inside a maternal pouch called the marsupium.
  67. mesoderm
    The middle primary germ layer in a triploblastic animal embryo; develops into the notochord, the lining of the coelom, muscles, skeleton, gonads, kidneys, and most of the circulatory system in species that have these structures.
  68. metamorphosis
    A devel- opmental transformation that turns an animal larva into either an adult or an adult-like stage that is not yet sexually mature.
  69. metanephridia
    An excretory organ found in many invertebrates that typically consists of tubules connecting ciliated internal openings to external openings.
  70. monotreme
    An egg-laying mammal, such as a platypus or echidna. Like all mammals, monotremes have hair and produce milk, but they lack nipples.
  71. mycelium
    The densely branched network of hyphae in a fungus.
  72. mycorrhizae
    A mutualistic association of plant roots and fungus.
  73. mycosis
    General term for a fungal infection.
  74. nematocyst
    In a cnidocyte of a cnidarian, a capsule-like organelle contain- ing a coiled thread that when discharged can penetrate the body wall of the prey.
  75. nerve cord
    the hollow dorsal tract of nervous tissue that constitutes the central nervous system of all chordates
  76. neural crest
    In vertebrates, a region located along the sides of the neural tube where it pinches off from the ectoderm. Neural crest cells migrate to various parts of the embryo and form pigment cells in the skin and parts of the skull, teeth, adrenal glands, and peripheral nervous system.
  77. notochord
    A longitudinal, flexi- ble rod made of tightly packed mesodermal cells that runs along the anterior-posterior axis of a chordate in the dorsal part of the body.
  78. open vs closed circulatory system
    Open Cirvulatory system is A circulatory system in which fluid called hemolymph bathes the tissues and organs directly and there is no distinction between the circulating fluid and the interstitial fluid.

    closed circulatory system is A circulatory system in which blood is confined to vessels and is kept separate from the interstitial fluid.
  79. operculum
    In aquatic osteichthyans, a protective bony flap that covers and protects the gills.
  80. osmoconformer
    An animal that is isoosmotic with its environmen
  81. osmoregulator
    An animal that controls its internal osmolarity independent of the external environment.
  82. parthenogenesis
    A form of asexual reproduction in which females produce offspring from unfertilized eggs
  83. pharyngeal slits
    Pharyngeal slits are used by organisms to filter food particles from water
  84. placenta
    A structure in the preg- nant uterus for nourishing a viviparous fetus with the mother’s blood supply; formed from the uterine lining and embryonic membranes.
  85. plasmogamy
    In fungi, the fusion of the cytoplasm of cells from two indi- viduals; occurs as one stage of sexual reproduc- tion, followed later by karyogamy.
  86. polyp vs medusa
    Polyp is The sessile variant of the cnidarian body plan.

    medusa is The floating, flattened, mouth-down version of the cnidarian body plan.
  87. Positive vs. negative pressure breathing
    breathing system in which air is forced into the lungs

    negative pressure breathing is A breathing system in which air is pulled into the lungs
  88. protonephridia
    An excretory system, such as the flame bulb system of flatworms, consisting of a network of tubules lacking internal openings.
  89. protostome
    First mouth
  90. pseudocoelom
    An animal whose body cavity is lined by tissue derived from mesoderm and endoderm.
  91. pulmocutaneous vs. systemic circuit
    pulmocutaneous circuit is A branch of the circulatory system in many amphibians that supplies the lungs and skin

    systemic circuit is The branch of the circulatory system that supplies oxygenated blood to and carries deoxygenated blood away from organs and tissues throughout the body.
  92. radial vs. bilateral symmetry
    Symmetry in which the body is shaped like a pie or barrel (lacking a left side and a right side) and can be divided into mirror-imaged halves by any plane through its central axis.

    Bilateral symmetry is the Body symmetry in which a central longitudinal plane divides the body into two equal but opposite halves.
  93. radula
    A straplike scraping organ used by many molluscs during feeding.
  94. ray-finned fish
    Member of the class Actinopterygii, aquatic osteichthyans with fins supported by long, flexible rays, including tuna, bass, and herring.
  95. reabsorption
    In excretory systems, the recovery of solutes and water from filtrate.
  96. respiratory medium
  97. respiratory surface
    respiratory surface is the region where gaseous exchange occur.
  98. septa
    One of the cross-walls that divide a fungal hypha into cells. Septa generally have pores large enough to allow ribosomes, mitochondria, and even nuclei to flow from cell to cell.
  99. sinuses
    The sinuses are cavities in the skull located around the eyes and behind the nose
  100. soredia
    In lichens, a small cluster of fungal hyphae with embedded alga
  101. stenohaline
    an organism, usually fish, that cannot tolerate a wide fluctuation in the salinity of water
  102. swim bladder
    In aquatic osteichthyans, an air sac that enables the animal to control its buoyancy in the water
  103. tetrapod
    vertebrate clade whose members have limbs with digits. Tetrapods include mammals, amphibians, and birds and other reptiles.
  104. tracheal system
    In insects, a system of branched, air-filled tubes that extends throughout the body and carries oxygen directly to cells.
  105. tube feet
    One of numerous extensions of an echinoderm’s water vascular system. Tube feet function in locomotion and feeding.
  106. tunicates
    Member of the clade Urochordata, sessile marine chordates that lack a backbone.
  107. urea
    A soluble nitrogenous waste produced in the liver by a metabolic cycle that combines am- monia with carbon dioxide
  108. uric acid
    A product of protein and purine metab- olism and the major nitrogenous waste prod- uct of insects, land snails, and many reptiles. Uric acid is relatively nontoxic and largely insolubl
  109. ventilation
    The flow of air or water over a respiratory surface.
  110. ventral
    Pertaining to the underside, or bottom, of an animal with radial or bilateral symmetry
  111. venules
    A vessel that conveys blood between a capillary bed and a vein
  112. vertebrate
    A chordate animal with a backbone, including sharks and rays, ray-finned fishes, coelacanths, lungfishes, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals.
  113. water vascular system
    A network of hydraulic canals unique to echinoderms that branches into extensions called tube feet, which func- tion in locomotion and feeding.
  114. zoospores
    Flagellated spore found in chytrid fungi and some protists.
Card Set
Bio Exam 3 All Vocabs
all vocabs related to animal kingdom