Bio 3 Text (Liverworts)

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  1. About __ species


                                                                  i.      Small and inconspicuous, but may form relatively large masses in favorable habitats; some grow in water; shaped as a liver
  2. a.      Reproduction:
                                                                  i.      Most liverwort gametophytes develop directly from __, but some genera first form a __ from which the __ develops
                                                                ii.      Gametophytes grow from __
    • spores
    • protonema-like filament of cells
    • mature gametophyte
    • apical meristem
  3. How many types depending on structure and explain?
    • 1.      Three types depending on structure:
    • a.      Complex thalloid liverworts (internal tissue differentiation)
    • b.      Leafy liverworts
    • c.       Simple thalloid liverworts
    • Both leafy and simple have ribbons oof undifferentiated tissue 
  4. __ can occur
    symbiotic relationships
  5. a.      Marcantia
                                                                  i.      Has __
                                                                ii.      Gametangia borne on __
    1.      The __ are just ro__that grow __ rather than __
    • dichotomously branched gametophytes
    • gametophores (gametangiophores)
    • gametophore stalks
    • lled-up regular thalli 
    • perpendicular to the ground
    • flat against it
  6.                                                               i.      Gametophytes are __
    1.      Male and female are distinguished by their __
    a.      __ are borne on __
    b.      __ are borne on __
    • unisexual
    • gametophores
    • Antheridia are born on antheridiophores
    • Archegonia are borne on umbrella-headed gametophores called archegoniophores
  7.                                                               i.      The sporophyte generation consists of a __(3)__
    1.      In addition to spores, it has __, which are __
    a.      Walls of __are sensitive to __and do what?
    foot, a short seta (stalk), and a capsule


    hygroscopic (moisture-absorbing) wall thickenings


     twist to help disperse the spores
  8.                                                               i.      __is the principle means of asexual reproduction in liverworts
                                                                ii.      They also produce __, which are produced on __ located on the __ of the gametophyte
    1.      __are dispersed primarily by __
    • Fragmentation 
    • gemmae
    • gemma cups
    • dorsal surface
    • Gammae 
    • splashes of rain
  9. a.      Leafy liverworts
                                                                  i.      abundant in __ and __, in regions of __ or __, where they grow on the __and the __, and other plant surfaces
                                                                ii.      Also  located in __regions
    • tropics and subtropics
    • heavy rainfall or high humidity
    • leaves 
    • bark of trees
    • temperate
  10.                                                               i.      Structure:
    1.      __
    2.      Lack a __but have __that __ from stem in three dimensions like mosses
    Single layer of undifferentiated cells; may have two rows of equal-sized leaves and a third row of smaller leaves along the lower surface of the gametophyte

    • midrib 
    • leaves 
    • splay outward
  11.                                                               i.      Antheridia: __
                                                                ii.      The developing sporophyte is surrounded by a __ called the __
    borne on short side branch with modified leaves: androecium

    tubular sheath

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Bio 3 Text (Liverworts)
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