Psychology Exam #3

  1. Memory
    The persistence of learning over time through the storage & retrieval of information
  2. State Dependent Memory
    What we learn in one state - be it drunk or sober - may be more easily recalled when we are again in that state
  3. Spacing Effect
    The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
  4. Chunking
    Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
  5. Implicit/Explicit Memories
    Implicit = retention independent of conscious recollection; aka nondeclarative memory

    Explicit = memory of fact & experiences that one can consciously know & declare; aka declarative memory
  6. Encoding
    The processing of information into the memory system - for example, by extracting meaning
  7. Rehearsal
    Role of repetition in the retention of memories
  8. Motivated Forgetting
    People may forget unwanted memories, either consciously or unconsciously
  9. Acoustic Encoding
    Process of remembering & comprehending something that you hear
  10. Iconic/Echoic Memories
    Iconic = a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photograph or picture - image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second

    Echoic = a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
  11. Hierarchy
    A way to process information composed of few broad concepts divided & subdivided into narrower concepts & facts
  12. Flashbulb Memories
    A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
  13. Storage
    The retention of encoded information over time
  14. Semantic Encoding
    Processing & encoding of sensory input that has a particular meaning or can be applied to a context
  15. Retrieval Cues
    Priming = the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory

    State-dependent Memory = what we learn in one state may be more easily recalled when we are again in that state

    Mood-congruent Memory = the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood

    Serial Position Effect = our tendency to recall best the last & first items in a list
  16. Framing
    The way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions & judgements
  17. Belief Perserverance
    Clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
  18. Phoneme
    In a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
  19. Insight
    A sudden realization of a problem's solution; contrasts with strategy-based solutions
  20. States Of Language Development
    4 months = babbles many speech sounds; ex:  ah-goo

    10 months = babbling resembles household language; ex:  ma'ma

    12 months = one-word stage; ex:  kitty

    24 months = two-word, telegraphic speech; ex:  get ball

    24+ months = language develops rapidly into complete sentences
  21. Grammar
    In a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with & understand others.  In a given language, semantics is the set of rules for deriving meaning from sounds, & syntax is the set of rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences.
  22. Heuristics
    A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements & solve problems efficiently; speedier but more error-prone than algorithms
  23. Fixation
    An inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective
  24. Confirmation Bias
    A tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions & to ignore or distort contradictory evidence
  25. Algorithm
    A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem
  26. Overconfidence
    The tendency to be more confident than correct - to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs & judgements
  27. Functional Fixedness
    Cognitive bias that limits a person to using an object in the way it's traditionally used
  28. Prototype
    A mental image or best example of a category.  Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick & easy method for sorting items into categories (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin).
  29. Achievement & Aptitude Tests
    Achievement Tests = tests designed to assess what a person has learned

    Aptitude Tests = tests designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn
  30. Emotional Intelligence
    The ability to perceive, understand, manage, & use emotions
  31. Reliability & Validity
    Reliability = the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, or on retesting

    Validity = the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to
  32. Content Validity
    The extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest
  33. WAIS
    Most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal & performance (nonverbal) subjects
  34. Binet & Simon
    Commissioned by the French government to solve the problem of children's learning potential.  Created the Binet test.
  35. Standardization
    Defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group
  36. G Factor
    A general intelligence factor that, according to Spearman & others, underlies specific mental abilities & is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test
  37. Savant Syndrome
    A condition in which a person other wise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing
  38. Incentives
    A positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
  39. Calling
    A strong desire to do something
  40. Homeostasis
    A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
  41. Flow
    Mental state of operation in which a person performing an activity is fully immersed in a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, & enjoyment in the process of the activity
  42. Basal Metabolic Rate
    The body's resting rate of energy expenditure
  43. Bulimia & Anorexia
    Bulimia = eating disorder characterized by binge eating & purging, or consuming a large amount of food in a short amount of time followed by an attempt to rid oneself of the food consumed

    Anorexia = eating disorder characterized by immoderate food restriction, inappropriate eating habits or rituals, obsession with having a thin figure, and an irrational fear of weight gain, as well as a distorted body self-perception
  44. Hunger
    Sensation experienced when one feels the physiological need to eat food
  45. Motivation
    A need or desire that energizes & directs behavior
  46. Industrial Educational Psychology
    The application of psychological concepts & methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces
  47. Drive Reduction Theory
    The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
  48. Task Leadership
    Goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, & focuses attention on goals
  49. Achievement Motivation
    A desire for significant accomplishment; for mastery of skills or ideas; for rapidly attaining a high standard
  50. Drive
    Aroused tension state
  51. Essay

    Bias In Testing
  52. Essay

    Racial Differences In Test Scores
  53. Essay

  54. Essay

  55. Essay

Card Set
Psychology Exam #3
Psychology Exam #3