116 exam 1

  1. Dopamine

    • fine muscle movements
    • integration of emotions and thoughts
    • decision making
    • stimulates hypothalamus release hormones (sex, thyroid, adrenal)
  2. association with mental health

    Decrease = Parkinson's Disease, Depression

    Increase = Schizophrenia, Mania
  3. Effects/Comments

    • Level in brain affects mood
    • Attention and Arousal
    • Stimulates Sympathetic branch of Autonomic Nervous system "Fight or Flight"
  4. Association with Mental Health

    Decrease = Depression,

    Increase = Mania, Anxiety, Schizophrena
  5. Effects/Comments

    • plays role in Sleep Regulation, Hunger, Mood States and Pain Perception
    • Hormonal Activity
    • Plays role in Aggression and sexual behavior
  6. Association with Mental Health

    Decrease = Depression

    Increase = Anxiety States
  7. effects/comments

    • Plays role in inhibition, reduces aggression, excitation and anxiety
    • May plat role in pain perception
    • Has anticonvulsant and muscle relaxing properties
    • May impair cognitive and psychomotor functioning
  8. association with mental health

    decrease = anxiety d/o, schizophrenia, mania, Huntington's disease

    increase = reduction in anxiety
  9. Effects/Comments

    • plays role in learning, memory
    • regulates mood, mania, sexual aggression
    • affects sexual and aggressive behavior
    • Stimulates
  10. association with mental health

    decrease = Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's Disease, Parkinson's disease

    increase = Depression
  11. parietal lobe
    • receive and identify sensory information
    • concept formation and abstraction
    • Proprioception and body awareness
    • Reading, mathematics, Right and Left orientation
  12. Occipital lobe

    • interprets visual images
    • visual association
    • visual memories
    • involved with language formation
  13. Temporal Lobe

    • Language Comprehension
    • Stores Sounds into memory (Speech, Language)
  14. Frontal Lobe

    • formulate or select goals
    • initiate, plan, terminate actions
    • decision making
    • insight
    • motivation
  15. antianxiety drug that is addictive
  16. What are antidepressants used to treat?
    • depression
    • Anxiety
    • OCD
    • SAD
    • GAD
    • PD
  17. why are antidepressants used to treat anxiety
    the symptoms, neurotransmitters and circuits associated with anxiety D/Os overlap with depressive D/Os so antidepressant meds have proven effective in the treatment of anxiety D/Os
  18. antidepressant medications

    • no longer 1st line
    • take long time to reach optimal dose
    • Lethal in overdose (very Cariotoxic)
    • More side effects (anticholinergic effects)
  19. antidepressant medications

    selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
    Prozac, Zolft, Paxil, Celexa, Lexapro,
    block the reuptake and degradation of serotonin

    overall these meds work more selectively with less side effects compared to Tricyclics

    (drug blocks the receptor causing more free flowing serotonin)
  20. SNRI

    Effexor, Cymbalta, pristiq
    increase both Serotonin and norepinephrine
  21. Effexor
    • SNRI
    • at a low dose is more serotonergic, but at higher doses norepinephrine reuptake blockades occur
  22. Cymbalta
    • SNRI
    • it is indicated for depression, GAD, Diabetic neuropathy, and fibromyalgia

    it limits pain signal going to the brain
  23. short acting sedative hypnotic that acts like a BENZO
    • Buspirone
    • acts like Benzo without the addictive properties
    • it reduces anxiety without strong sedative/hypnotic effects
  24. treating anxiety with antidepressants
    SSRI treats what?
    • OCD
    • SAD
    • GAD
    • PD
  25. treating anxiety with antidepressants

    Effexor XR treats what?
    • GAD
    • SAD
    • PD
  26. treating anxiety with antidepressants

    Cymbalta treats what?
  27. SNDI
    Serotonin Norepinephrine disinhibitors
    • only one drug REMERON
    • offers both antianxiety and antidepressant effects with minimal sexual dysfunction and improved sleep

    Also suited for pts with nausea because it is an antiemetic
  28. MAOI
    can hve desirable effect for the brain but possibly dangerous side effects for the body

    MAO is present in many foods and it is the enzyme used in the liver to degrade food, these meds inhibit the enzyme and interfere with there destruction leaving more NT available. if liver does not have enough MAO to breakdown substances vasoconstriction can occur
  29. Lithium
    • mood stabilizer , treats BiPolar
    • because it alter electrical conduction it is a threat to cardiac system
  30. Anticonvulsants also work treating what?
    Bipolar disorder
  31. what is important about the anticonvulsants Depakote, Depakene
    • need baseline bloodwork
    • birth effects
  32. Tegretol
    anticonvulsant also useful in preventing mania

    needs baseline labs and must monitor
  33. Lamictal
    anticonvulsant approved for treating bipolar but not effective in treating mania

    pt should report any rash Stevens-Johnson syndrome
  34. Antipsychotic drugs
    1st generation
    • strng antagonist to D2 receptors for dopamine. they block the attachment of dopamine, which reduces the dopamanergic transmission. they think the over activity of dopamine is responsible for some of the effects of schizophrenia
    • can lead to motor abnormalities like Parkinson's dyskinesia
  35. 1st generation antipsychotics can lead to
    motor abnormalities Parkinson's

    medical personnel must monitor for involuntary movement
  36. what does AIMS stand for?
    Abnormal involuntary movement scale
  37. 2nd generation antipsychotics
    • have less side effects
    • target both + and - effects of schizophrenia
  38. Clozapine
    • 2nd generation antipsychotic drug
    • that is relatively free of motor side effects but can suppress bone marrow and induce agranulocytosis, pt prone to infection
  39. negative symptoms
    things that are not there but should be
  40. positive symptoms
    things that are there but should not be
  41. adverse effects of antipsychotic drugs
    cholinergic block
    • dry mouth
    • blurred vision
    • urinary retention
    • constipation
    • tachycardia
  42. adverse effects of antipsychotic drugs
    Dopamine block
    • EPS
    • increased prolactin
    • gynomastia
    • galactorrhea
    • amenorrhea
  43. 3rd generation antipsychotic drugs

    • dopamine system stabilizer
    • decreased sedation

    side effects weight gain and insomnia
  44. herbals
    • increased risk of bleeding if mix ginko and warfarin
    • st johns wart mix with SSRI can cause serotonin syndrome, increased metabolim
  45. Guided Imagery
    • Therapeutic tool to treat anxiety, pain, psych trauma, PTSD.
    • It is used to enhance coping mechanisms
  46. therapeutic relationships
    • facilitate communication
    • assist with problem solving
    • help examine self-defeating behavior and try alternatives
    • promote self-care and independence
  47. relationships and boundaries
    • need well defined boundaries
    • boundaries protect the client and the nurse
  48. blurred boundaries occur when...
    • relationship becomes social
    • the nurses needs become the focus
  49. Transference
    client experiences feeling toward the nurse that were originally held toward _____special other??
  50. Countertransference
    health care workers unconscious, personal response to the client
  51. therapeutic communication techniques
    • use silence
    • active listening (listen with empathy)
    • clarification
    • paraphrasing
    • restating
    • reflecting
    • exploring
    • Ask open ended questions
  52. nurse patient relationship phases
    • Preorientation
    • Orientation Phase
    • Working Phase
    • Termination Phase
  53. what is the orientation phase in the nurse client relationship
    • 1st meeting
    • role clarification
    • confidentiality discussed
    • contracts about the specifics of the meeting are discussed
    • terms of termination are discussed
  54. Working phase
    nurse/client relationship
    • gather more data
    • promote problem solving and self esteem
    • facilitate behavior change
    • overcome resistance
    • evaluate problems and goals
    • promote practice of alternative behaviors
  55. termination phase
    nurse client relationship
    • feelings of loss and sadness
    • nurse cares for the client
    • learning experience
  56. things that will help nurse client relationship
    • consistency
    • pacing self and client
    • listening
    • initial impressions
    • promote client comfort
    • balance control
    • client trust and participation
Card Set
116 exam 1
nursing 116 exam 1