Aromatherapy syllabus everything else

  1. Homeodynamics
    • Etymology: Gk, homoios, similar, dynamis, forcethe constantly changing interrelatedness of body components while an overall equilibrium is maintained.
    • The principles of homeodynamic postulates the way unitary human beings are perceived. The fundamental unit of the living system is an energy field.
  2. CAM - complementary and alternative medicine
    • Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is the term for medical products and practices that are not part of standard care. Standard care is what medical doctors, doctors of osteopathy, and allied health professionals, such as nurses and physical therapists, practice.
    • Complementary medicine is used together with standard medical care. An example is using acupuncture to help with side effects of cancer treatment.
    • Alternative medicine is used in place of standard medical care. An example is treating heart disease with chelation therapy (which seeks to remove excess metals from the blood) instead of using a standard approach.
  3. the AC  Aromatherapy Council - the lead body for the UK Aromatherapy Profession definition of aromatherapy
    Aromatherapy is the systematic use of essential oils in holistic treatments to improve physical and emotional well-being. Essential oils, extracted from plants, possess distinctive therapeutic properties, which can be utilised to improve health and wellbeing
  4. Essential oils are
    • Aromatic • Volatile • Powerful • Soluble in oil and alcohol ▪ Lipophilic • Hydrophlilic • Liquid • Non-greasy (essences) • Flammable
  5. Angiosperm
    Flowering plants that produce covered seeds, divide into monocotyledons and dicotyledons
  6. Gymnosperm
    Seeds born in the open on cones - conifers e.g. Cypress, Juniper
  7. Monocotyledons
    • Angiosperms - single nerrow leaf,
    • non-woody
    • small flowers in multiples of 3,
    • e.g. grass, vetiver, lemongrass
    • Have usually tap roots - e.g. carrot, grass, dandelion
  8. Dicotyledons
    • Angiosperms
    • two seed leaves
    • woody or non-woody
    • floral parts in multiple of 4 or 5 petals; e.g. sweet marjoram, Geranium,  Rose, Oak
    • Usually have fibrous roots
  9. Root
    • holds plants in the ground
    • may be branching or tap like
    • microscopic root hair take in the water and nutrients allow the plant to grow
  10. Rhizome
    A modified stem growing just below the surface of the soil in the horizontal direction, e.g. ginger
  11. Stem
    • Provides support for the plant
    • permit the transportation of water and nutrients and support the leaves, flowers and fruit
    • Some long lived plants develop thick steams that turn woody with age
  12. Leaf
    • Energy converters - absorb sunlight and using chlorophyll, a green pigment, transform carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates used for growth
    • process known as photosynthesis, produces oxygen
  13. Flower
    • used for reproduction, attraction of pollinating insects
    • pollen from the stamen - male part of one flower is transferred to the carpel - female part of the same or another flower
    • Pollen from the ather - sac like structure of male part, needs to reach stigma of female part for fertilization.
    • the female part of the flower after fertilization can produce the fruit containing seeds
    • Many flowers in group on a stalk is known as infloresence
  14. Fruit
    Angiosperms produce the fruit to hold their seeds
  15. Seeds
    • Are surrounded by seed coat-Testa
    • contain plant embryo, the cotyledon and one or two proto leaves that will become the seedling when the right conditions are encountered
  16. origins of essential oils are:
    • leaves
    • flowers
    • stems
    • twigs
    • bark
    • heartwood
    • resin
    • roots
    • rhizomes
    • fruit pulp
    • fruit peel
    • seeds
  17. water/steam destilation
    • most common and economical from
    • 1. plant material mixed with the water and heated or steam under pressure is passed through
    • 2. the essential oil evaporates from the plant
    • 3. mix of oil vapour and steam passes into a cooled pipe and condences
    • 4. liquid mix passes into a collecting vessel where the oil and water separate making it easy to decant the oil
    • There are 5 stages:
    • plant preparation
    • heat
    • evaporation
    • condensation
    • collection - hydrolat and essential oil separated ready to be collected
  18. Hydro-diffusion/ Percolation
    • uses steam similar to distilation but it percolates down through the plant material instead of up.
    • When it cools at the bottom of the tank the oil either float or sinks
    • Is faster than distillation which results in less damage to the essence  as is heated for a shorter period of time
  19. Expression
    • extraction by application of pressure
    • extracted product is called an essence
    • no change in composition has taken place as no reaction with the water or other substances occur
  20. Solvent extraction
    • when aromatic essence is difficult to obtain by distillation or the distillation may damage the delicate fragrance of the plant. 3 types:
    • Resinoid - e.g. benzoin, myrrh - the aromatic essence is difficult to obtain beacause they are often mixed up with fibrous material such as bark and dirt. There are 3 stages to that:
    • - preparation - chopping, cutting of raw material, placing on a rack and covered with solvent - hydrocarbons or alcohols
    • - heat - oils dissolve in the solvent
    • - filtration - solvent is evaporated off and solid residue is called a resinoid

    • concrete - a mixture of natural waxes and a plant of the delicate plant parts e.g. Jasmine,'s aromatic essence. They are highly concentrated and more stable ( do not evaporate when exposed to the air) than essential oils. Hydrocarbon solvents are used and has 3 stages
    • preparation - material put on the rack and covered with solvent
    • - heat - essences disolve into the solvent
    • - Filtration - solvent removed - solid paste that remails is called concrete

    • Absolutes e.g. rose, jasmine -After extraction concretes are treated further to obtain an absolute.
    • They are obtained by mixing concretes with alcohol
    • the aromatic plant essence transfers to the aclohol and solid waxy substance which is not soluble in alcohol is left as a residue
    • 2 stages
    •  - mixing - concrete is mixed with alcohol and then chilled, the plant essence dissolves into alcohol
    • - filtration - after filtration the alcohol is evaporated leaving the absolute - the plant's essence
  21. Absolute
    Liquid thicker and more concentrated than a pure essential oil
  22. Biosynthesis
    Natural process of turning simple elements into complex chemical groups.
Card Set
Aromatherapy syllabus everything else
Bits and pieces of theory