Community Diseases stack 2

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  1. H1N5/Bird flu transmission
    • close or direct cancer with infected poultry
    • rarely spread person to person
  2. H1N5/bird flu signs and symptoms
    conjunctivitis, fever, cough, sore throat, muscle ache, shortness of breath, dyspnea, pneumonia, nausea and vomiting, seizures, altered mental state
  3. H1N5/bird flu how to diagnose
    swab of the nose or throat within the first few days of illness
  4. H1N5/bird flu treatment
    Oseltamivir or Zanamivir to treat and prevent
  5. H1N5/ bird flu Vaccine
    Yes, it is not routinely used, but we have a stockpile
  6. H1N5/bird flu reportable disease in Illinois
  7. H1N5/bird flu education
    • avoid prolonged, unprotected exposure with infected people
    • avoid exposure to infected poultry
    • use protective equipment and hand hygiene when handling poultry
  8. Hantavirus Transmission
    • dust infected by mice urine, feces, and saliva 
    • bite of an infected rodent
  9. Hantavirus signs and symptoms
    flu-like symptoms, fever, cough, muscle pain, nausea and vomiting, headache
  10. Hantavirus onset of symptoms
    5-42 days after exposure
  11. Hantavirus treatment
    • No medicine
    • Supportive care in ICU with monitoring of blood pressure and fluid balance
    • Mechanical ventilation may be needed
  12. Hantavirus vaccine
  13. Hantavirus reportable disease in Illinois
  14. Hantavirus Education
    • Don't keep rodents in the house
    • Don't provide food water, or nesting environments
    • Seal the building to prevent rodent infestation
  15. Hepatitis A transmission
    • fecal-oral route
    • Can be transmitted person to person or from consumption of food or water that is contaminated
  16. Hepatitis A signs and symptoms
    fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, gray stools, dark urine, joint pain, and jaundice
  17. Hepatitis A onset of symptoms
    usually develop after 2-6 weeks
  18. Hepatitis A diagnosis
    Symptoms and blood sample
  19. Hepatitis A treatment
    • Rest, adequate nutrition, lots of fluid, and medical monitoring
    • Some will need to be hospitalized
  20. Hepatitis A vaccine
    Yes, for those at high risk
  21. Hepatitis A reportable in Illinois
    Yes, within 24 hours of finding a suspected case or diagnosed
  22. Hepatitis A education
    • Wash hands with soap and water after going to the bathroom, changing a diaper, and before and after preparing food
    • Best way to prevent it is the vaccination
  23. Hepatitis B transmission
    • skin puncture or mucosal contact with infected body fluids
    • Sexual intercourse, sharing of needles or syringes, contact with blood through an open sore, and sharing razors and toothbrushes
  24. Hepatitis B signs and symptoms
    fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, clay colored stools, joint pain, and jaundice
  25. Hepatitis B onset of symptoms
    Usually begin within 90 days but can occur from 60-150 days post exposure
  26. Hepatitis B how to diagnosis
    Blood testing showing Hepatitis B antigen
  27. Hepatitis B treatment
    • Acute infection is supportive only
    • Chronic infection is treated with antivirals such as adefovir, dipivoxil, interferon alfa-2b, pegylated itnerferon alfa 2a, lamivudine, entecavir, and telbivudine.
    • Monitored for liver damage and carcinoma development
  28. Hepatitis B Vaccine
    Yes in three shots
  29. Hepatitis B reportable disease in Illinois
    Yes, within 7 days
  30. Hepatitis B education
    • Best way to prevent is the vaccine 
    • Those at risk are those with multiple sex partners, having intercourse with an infected person, sharing needles, having a STI, those exposed on the job, and infants of an infected mother
  31. Hepatitis C transmission
    Exposure to infected blood: sharing contaminated needles and accidental needle sticks; birth from HCV positive mother; intercourse
  32. Hepatitis C sign and symptoms
    fatigue, fever, dark urine, clay-colored stool, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, joint pain, jaundice, and nausea and vomiting
  33. Hepatitis C onset of symptoms
    appear 4-12 weeks but it is usually asymptomatic
  34. Hepatitis C diagnose
    blood screening to detect virus or HCV antibody
  35. Hepatitis C treatment
    • Pegylated interferon and ribavirin for 24-48 weeks to
    • Monitor for liver disease progression
    • Sofosbuvir (Sovaldi) and Simeprevir (Olysio) when liver function is compromised for 12-24 weeks
  36. Hepatitis C vaccine
  37. Hepatitis C reportable in Illinois
  38. Hepatitis C education
    • Not to share items that could have blood
    • Cover any break int he skin 
    • Do not donate blood
    • Avoid alcohol
    • There is a risk of transmission to your sexual partner
  39. Herpes Zoster transmission
    • spread when the rash is in the blister-phase
    • can be spread from a person to another who has had no chickenpox
    • spread through direct contact with fluid from the rash blister
  40. Herpes Zoster signs and symptoms
    painful rash on side of face/body; pain, itching, or tingling in the area; single stripe on body; fever; headache; chills; upset stomach
  41. Herpes zoster onset of symptoms
    • clears up in 2-4 weeks
    • unknown reasons for reactivation of virus/symptoms
  42. Herpes zoster diagnosis
    • not possible in absence of rash
    • direct fluorescent antibody staining
    • PCR
    • serologic methods
    • Tzanck smears of lesions
  43. Herpes Zoster treatment
    • Antiviral medication to shorten length and severity
    • Acyclovir, Valacyclovir, famciclovir 
    • wet compresses, calamine lotion, and colloidal oatmeal baths
  44. Herpes Zoster vaccination
  45. Herpes Zoster reportable in Illinois
  46. Herpes zoster education
    • Vaccination at age 60
    • measures to reduce associated pain
    • caused by the same virus as the chickenpox
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Community Diseases stack 2
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