Chapter 4 Social Structure Flashcards.txt

  1. social structure
    network of interrelated statuses and roles that guide human interaction
  2. status
    socially defined position in a group or in a society
  3. role
    the behavior expected of someone occupying a particular status
  4. ascribed status
    based on a persons inherited traits
  5. achieved status
    aquired by individuals through their own direct efforts
  6. master status
    the status that plays the greatest role in shaping a persons life and determining his or her social identity
  7. reciprocal roles
    corresponding roles that define the patterns of interaction between related statuses
  8. role expectations
    the socially determined behaviors expected of a person performing a role
  9. role performance
    actual role behavior
  10. role set
    the different roles attached to a single status
  11. role conflict
    occurs when fulfilling the role expectations of one status makes it difficult to fulfill the role expectations of another status
  12. role strain
    occurs when a person has difficulty meeting the role expectations on a single status
  13. social institution
    when statuses and roles are organized to satisfy one or more of the basic needs of society
  14. exchange
    when people interact in an effort to recieve a reward or return
  15. reciprocity
    the idea that if you do something for someone, that person owes you something in return
  16. exchange theory
    the volume of exchange in daily interactions
  17. competition
    occurs when 2 or more people or groups oppose each other to achieve a goal only one can attain
  18. conflict
    deliberate attempt to control a person by force, to oppose someone, or to harm another person
  19. cooperation
    occurs when 2 or more people or groups work together to achieve a goal that will benefit more than one person
  20. accomodation
    a state of balance between cooperation and conflict
  21. group
    set of people who interact on a basis of shared expectations and who posess some degree of common identity
  22. subsistence strategies
    the way a society uses technology to provide for the needs of its members
  23. preindustrial society
    when food production is the main economic activity
  24. hunting and gathering societies
    daily collection of wild plants and hunting of wild animals
  25. pastoral society
    rely on domesticated herd animals to meet their food needs
  26. division of labor
    the specialization by individuals or groups in the performance of specific economic activities
  27. horticultural society
    when fruits and vegtables grown in the garden are the main source of food
  28. agricultural society
    when animals are needed to pull plows to till the fields
  29. barter
    the exchange of a good or service
  30. industrial societies
    when the emphasis shifts from the production of food to the productions of manufactured goods
  31. urbanization
    the concentration of the population in cities
  32. postindustrial societies
    when much of the economy is involved in providing information and services
  33. mechanical solidarity
    when people share the same values and perform the same tasks, the become united in a common whole
  34. organic solidarity
    the impersonal social relationships that arise with increases job specialization
  35. gemeinschaft
  36. gesellschaft
  37. aggregate
    when people gather at the same place at the same time but lack organization
  38. social category
    a means of classifying people according to a shared trait or a common status
  39. dyad
    a group with two members
  40. triad
    3 person group
  41. small group
    few enough members that everyone is able to interact on a face to face basis
  42. formal group
    the structures, goals, and activities of the group are clearly defined
  43. informal group
    no official structure or established rules of conduct
  44. primary group
    small group of people who interact over a relatively long period of time on a direct and personal basis
  45. secondary group
    a group in which interaction is impersonal and temporary in nature
  46. reference group
    any group with whom individuals identify and whose attitudes and values they adopt
  47. in group
    the group that a person belongs to and identifies with
  48. out group
    any group that a person does not belong to or identify with
  49. e-community
    people interact with one another regularly on the internet
  50. social network
    the web of relationships that is formed by the sum total od a persons interactions with other people
  51. leaders
    people who influence the attitudes and opinions of others
  52. instrumental leaders
  53. expressive leaders
    emotion oriented
  54. formal organization
    a large, complex secondary group that has been established to achieve specific goals
  55. bureaucracy
    ranked authority structure that operates according to specific rules and procedures
  56. rationality
    involves subjecting every feature of human behavior to calculation, measurement, and control
  57. voluntary association
    a nonprofit organization formed to pursue some common interest
  58. iron law of oligarchy
    tendency of organizations to become increasingly dominated by small groups of people
Card Set
Chapter 4 Social Structure Flashcards.txt