communities 1 - 1st half

  1. public health
    what we do collectively to assure the conditions in which people can be healthy

    • it is a specialty b/c of the distinct focus and scope of practice
    • population focus
    • community oriented
  2. core functions of publich health
    assessment= data collection to monitor population health status

    policy development= change in public policy in response to pop's health stat

    assurance= make sure activities are begin carried out to meet those changes
  3. aggregate
    group of people that have one or more personal/enviromental charateristic in common
  4. primary prevention
    • active, health promoting activities designed to reduce the risk of specific occurrences
    • applies generally to healthy population
    • precedes any disease or disfunction
    • education is key
  5. secondary prevention
    • early Dx and prompt Tx of illness
    • involves efforst to detect and Tx existing health problems at earliest possible stage

  6. tertiary prevention
    Tx, care, and rehab to prevent further progression of disease in the individual as well as further into the population

    population is already "sick"
  7. 1st public health nurse
    Lillian Wald
  8. First School nurse
    Lina Rogers
  9. community-based 
    community-oriented nursing practice
    based= based on direct hands-on care with individual or family

    oriented= focused on the entire population
  10. three levels of public health practice
    • community focused
    • systems focused
    • individual focuesd
  11. community focused practice
    changes community norms, attitudes, awareness, practices, and behaviors
  12. system focused practice
    changes organizations, policies, laws, and power structures

    can usually make the biggest changes at this level
  13. individual focused practice
    changes knowledge, attitude, beliefs, practices, and behaviors of individuals
  14. 5 steps of community assessment
    • windshield survey
    • gather existing data= get usable info about the community and it's health. (interveiws, questionaires)
    • data generation= qualitative data observed or reported to the data collector. New data, usually not statistical
    • compose database= organize data, determine deficits and strengths
    • Problem analysis= ID and analyze problems
  16. what are the top 3 leading cause of death for both sexes?
    • Cardiac
    • Cancer
    • Cerebral vascular
  17. country with highest life expectancy

    white have inc CA Dx, but more black die from it
    white have inc CA Dx, but more black die from it
  19. WOMEN

    leading causes of death
    • 1. heart disease
    • 2. Cancer= inc. age is thought to be primary reason
  20. leading types of cancer in women in order
    • lung
    • breast
    • colorectal
  21. top surgeries for women
    • c-section
    • hysterectomy
  22. female genital mutilation
    • increases incidents in Somalia
    • 4 types= 1-4, least invasive to most
    • Done to infants through adults (common 4-12)
  23. 4 reasons for female genital mutilation
    psychosocial= maintain virginity/fidelity during marriage and to dec sexual pleasure

    social culture= to ID w/ cultural heritage, initiation into adulthood, grants access to land

    hygenic/asthetic= vag is seen as unclean

    spiritual reasons
  24. health disparities for women
    • race
    • imprisonment
    • disabilities
    • impoverished
    •  -inc rates of depression, PTSD, substance use
  25. MEN
  26. health priorities for men
    exercise, then sleep, and food last
  27. leading cause of death for men
    • heart disease
    • cancer= lung, then prostate, tesicular (15-35 yrs old), and skin
    • cerebrovascular disease
    • chronic lower respiratory
    • accidents

    suicide= inc rate 15-35 and >65
  28. 1st symptom of testicular cancer is a painless scrotal mass
  29. man have more suicides, homicides, violence, accidents and COPD than women
  30. mortality for men is highest for blacks and hispanics
  31. primary cancers for men
    • lung
    • prostate
  32. barriers for men healthcare
    • climate is not male friendly b/c of the hours of operation
    • access to health care
    • lack of health promotion
  34. factors influencing health care costs
    • lifestyle and health behavior is primary
    • past payment systems
    • unnecessary use of service
    • lack of preventative care
    • technology advances
    • shift from non-profit to for profit health care
  35. medicare
    care= for the elderly

    caid= for the poor, children, pregant, and disabled
  36. medicaid
    • joint state and federal venture
    • eligibilty is based on family size and income

    priority given to children, pregnant, and disabled
  37. Medicare
    must be 65 or older

    parts A-D
  38. Medicare A
    primarily cover inpatient and is generally free w/ a deductible (no monthly fee)
  39. medicare B
    Outpatient w/ premium (fee) and deductable

    cannot have B w/o A
  40. Medicare C
    • "medicare gap"
    • covers what A and B do not
    • premium and deductable
  41. Medicare D
    • prescription coverage
    • premium and deductable

    cannot have D w/o A
  42. reimbursement mechanisms of insurance:
    Retro VS Prospective plans
    retro= pays back after care is given

    pro= $ for prediction of agency cost for the coming year before care is given. It does not matter what care is actually given that year, they only get one amount
  43. barriers for access to health care
    • insufficient funds
    • physical barriers
    • sociological barriers= language difficutlies and fear of reprisals
Card Set
communities 1 - 1st half
communities 1 - 1st half