Community diseases stack 1

  1. Botulism transmission
    • foodborne: eating foods that have botulinum toxin
    • Infant: consuming spores of botulinum bacteria, which then grows int he intestines and release toxin
    • Adult intestinal toxemia: same as infant 
    • Iatrogenic: occurs from accidental OD of botulinum toxin
  2. Botulism sign and symptoms
    • double vision, blurred vision, drooping eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, dry mouth and muscle weakness. 
    • Infants are lethargic, feed poorly, constipated, weak cry, poor muscle tone
    • if untreated paralysis of respiratory muscles, legs, arms, and trunk
  3. Botulism onset of symptoms
    if food borne causes symptoms begin 18-36 hrs. after eating but can occur as early as 6 hours or as late as 10 days
  4. Botulism diagnosis
    tests for botulinum toxin and for bacteria that cause botulism can be performed
  5. Botulism treatment
    • Respiratory and paralysis may necessitate breathing machine for weeks/months plus intensive medical and nursing care
    • antitoxin which blocks action of toxin in the blood
    • may try to remove contaminated food from gut by inducing vomiting or using enemas
  6. Botulism Vaccine
  7. Botulism reportable in Illinois?
  8. Botulism education
    Boil food in cans for 10 minutes before eating. Seek treatment for infected wounds promptly and avoid injectable street drugs. Don't feed infants honey.
  9. Chlamydia transmission
    sexual contact; anal, vaginal, or oral. Has to be unprotected and person can have been treated previously for it
  10. Chlamydia signs and symptoms
    • Most don't have any
    • Women: abnormal vaginal discharge, burning sensation when urinating 
    • Men: discharge from penis, burning sensation when urinating, pain/swelling in 1 or both testes
  11. Chlamydia onset of symptoms
    Most are asymptomatic but if symptoms occur it will be several weeks before they occur
  12. Chlamydia how to diagnose
    • Urine sample or swab sample from vagina 
    • Nucleic acid amplification tests can be performed
  13. Chlamydia treatment
  14. Chlamydia vaccine
  15. Chlamydia reportable in Illinois?
  16. Chlamydia education
    • Abstain from sexual activity for 7 days
    • Can re-occur after treatment
    • Condoms reduce the risk of chlamydia transmission
    • Screening is necessary to identify infection
    • Untreated it can cause pelvic inflammatory disease
  17. Cutaneous anthrax transmission
    spores get into the skin through a cute or scrape; spore comes from wools, hides, hairs, infected animals, soil
  18. cutaneous anthrax signs and symptoms
    small blisters or bumps that may itch, painless sores with a black center, and possible swelling around sores
  19. cutaneous anthrax onset of symptoms
    infection usually develops 1-7 days after exposure
  20. cutaneous anthrax diagnosis
    test blood, skin lesion swab, spinal fluid, or respiratory secretion for Bacillus anthracis or antibodies
  21. cutaneous anthrax treatment
    • IV antibiotics, antitoxin, which target anthrax toxins
    • must take antibiotics for 60 days
  22. cutaneous anthrax vaccine
    yes but it is not available to the general public
  23. cutaneous anthrax reportable disease in Illinois
    Yes, immediately
  24. Cutaneous anthrax education
    • Signs and symptoms and what to do in case you have symptoms
    • wear gloves when working with animals when you have a cut on your hand
    • proper hand washing
    • how to prepare for bioterrorism
  25. Genital warts transmission
    • caused by HPV transmitted through contact with genitals
    • can transmit even if no signs are present
  26. Genital warts signs and symptoms
    bumps develop on the genitals and rarely on the throat. They can be small or large, solitary or in groups, flat or raised, or look like cauliflower. The cells affected can also turn into cancers. It can also by asymptomatic for a certain amount of time
  27. Genital warts onset of symptoms
    Can appear within weeks to months. Cancers don't always present signs until the tumor is very advanced
  28. Genital warts how to diagnosis
    • No screenings available
    • HPV virus test for the types that cause cancer
    • Pap smear can detect early cervical changes
  29. Genital warts treatment
    Warts can be removed by medication or they may go away on their own. Sometimes they get bigger and more numerous
  30. Genital warts Vaccine
    • Yes, Gardasil given ages 13-26 for both males and females. 
    • Ceravix is also available and is recommeneded for girls ages 11-12
  31. Genital warts reportable disease
  32. Genital warts education
    • You can be infected by more than one strain and only some produce cancerous cell changes
    • Can transmit and is still infected with no symptoms
    • Condoms can lower the risk for contracting the disease
    • Limit your number of sexual partners with abstinence the only true prevention plan
    • Self-exam your body and have frequent health checks
  33. Gonorrhea transmission
    Transmitted through anal, vaginal, and oral contact with an infectedperson. It can spread from a pregnant women to her baby during childbirth.
  34. Gonorrhea signs and symptoms
    • Discharge or burning with urination
    • Some women may have spotting between periods
    • Some remain asymptomatic
  35. Gonorrhea Onset of symptoms
    Onset of 1-14 days since exposure
  36. Gonorrhea diagnosis
    Urine sample, swabs of the throat, vagina, and rectum
  37. Gonorrhea treatment
    • Antimicrobial drug usually cephalosporin
    • It is becoming more and more drug resistant
  38. Gonorrhea vaccine
  39. Gonorrhea reportable in Illinois
    Yes, it must be reported within 7 days
  40. Gonorrhea education
    Persons should inform all their past sexual partners from 60 days of the onset
  41. H1N1 transmission
    • Airborne and droplet
    • Fomite
  42. H1N1 signs and symptoms
    fever, cough, runny nose, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea
  43. H1N1
    onset of 3-6 hours, duration of about 4-7 days
  44. H1N1 how to diagnose
    • diagnoses based on symptoms 
    • nasopharyngeal swab sample but we're not sure how well this works
  45. H1N1 treatment
    • Antivirals to lessen the severity
    • OTC to treat the symptoms
    • Comfort care
  46. H1N1 vaccination
    None for H1N1, but there is a yearly flu vaccine
  47. H1N1 reportable disease in Illinois
    Yes, immediately
  48. H1N1 education
    • Washing hands, stay home while sick, avoid touching nose and mouth, cough into elbow, wear a mask if in heavily populated area
    • can't be contracted by eating pork, but can by spending time around pigs
    • education about the yearly flu vaccine, and how it won't prevent H1N1
Card Set
Community diseases stack 1
Stack 1---50 cards of diseases