PSY 201 Ch 9 Set B: Sleep Disorders and Drugs

  1. insomnia
    persistent difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep; treatment: prescription drugs; stimulus control techniques
  2. narcolepsy
    abrupt shift from an active, often emotional waking state into REM sleep; may experience cataplexy (loss of muscle tone), may stem from a genetic defect; treatment: daily naps, certain drugs
  3. sleep apnea
    sudden stops in breathing hundreds of times every night; no recall of brief awakenings to resume breathing; causes: genetic predisposition, obesity
  4. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
    sleeping infants stop breathing and die; most common cause of unexpected infant death in Western countries
  5. Possible causes of SIDS
    problems with brain (in medulla/breathing); exposure to cigarette smoke; genetic causes; accidental suffocation from sleeping face-down on a soft surface
  6. nightmares
    distressing stage 1-REM sleep (dreams); occurs 4-8% of the population; higher % in people who suffer from PTSD following military combat, torture, or rape.
  7. Sleep/Night terror
    horrific images during Stage 4 sleep; synptoms: blood curdling scream; intensely frightened for 30 mins; no recall of the episode in the morning; common for boys, adults suffer milder versions; treatable with drugs
  8. sleepwalking/sleeptalking
    occurs during non-REM sleep; usually in childhood; most sleepwalkers forget activities; no consistently effective medical treatments; most children simply outgrow; waking is not harmful
  9. REM Behavior Disorder
    Normal REM paralysis does not occur; sleepers move, act out dreams; can be dangerous to the dreamer or people nearby; treated with prescription drugs
  10. psychoactive drugs
    drugs can change consciousness, mood, and perceptions; most alter the interactions between neurotransmitters and their receptors; functioning at the synapse
  11. agonists
    bind to receptors to mimic neurotransmitters' effects
  12. antagonists
    bind to receptors to block neurotransmitters' effects
  13. depressants
    reduce CNS activity by increasing an inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA; effects: relaxation, drowsiness, depression
  14. Alcohol
    a depressant that affects different areas of the brain; reduces activity in the area that activates the cerebral cortex; in the "locus coeruleus"; cultural inhibitions are lessened; some report difficulty remembering things; impairs the hippocampus (memories); poor motor coordination
  15. effects of alcohol
    may cause fatal problems with breathing and heartbeat regulation; depresses hindbrain (medulla) mechanisms; impairs hippocampus (memories), may be permanent
  16. stimulants
    increase CNS activity; increase behavioral and mental activity. examples: amphetamines, cocaine, caffeine
  17. amphetamines
    increases release and decrease removal of norepinephrine and dopamine
  18. effects of amphetamines
    alertness, arousal, anxiety; appetite suppression, insomnia; non-stop talking
  19. cocaine
    produces excitation; a sense of increased muscular strength; euphoria; once widely used as a local anesthetic; still used in dentistry in a synthetic form (novacain); originally present in coca-cola
  20. opiates
    narcotics, relieve pain; drowsy effect; induce sleep; highly addictive class of drugs; Examples: opium, morphine, heroin, codeine (prescription cough syrup)
  21. hallucinogenic drugs
    also called psychedelics; create a loss of contact with reality; cause feelings of distorted body image; cause dream-like fantasies and hallucinations; examples: LSD, marijuana, ketamine (special K)
  22. LSD
    hallucinatiory, effects attributed to: stimulates specific types of serotonin receptors in the forebrain and a subtype of dopamine receptors; not addictive but tolerance does develop
  23. marijuana
    active ingredient is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC); most widely used; very controversial illegal drug in the U.S.
  24. effects of marijuana
    alters blood flow to many brain regions, continues to affect consciousness for several hours; less potent than LSD; restlessness and hilarity; dreamy, carefree relaxation; more vivid sensations; food cravings, increased appetite
Card Set
PSY 201 Ch 9 Set B: Sleep Disorders and Drugs
exam 3