PSY psychology of prejudice

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  1. how to reduce prejudice
    • equal status
    • cooperation
    • social environment (support of culture)
    • common goals
    • personality of people involved
    • acquaintance potential friendship
  2. cognitive dissonance
    excessive mental stress and discomfort experienced by an individual who holds two or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or values at the same time
  3. symbolic threat
    perception that another group challenges our core values and way of life
  4. realistic threat
    the concern that another group will harm our health, take our resources, or territory
  5. realistic group conflict
    seeing other groups as competitors arouses bias, leads to discrimination
  6. super ordinate goal
    • both have one goal that is super important
    • ex: robbers cave study
  7. De-categorize
    takes away group, your an indiviudal
  8. Re- categorize
    • put in a group
    • **get people who typically thought of each other in terms as members of different groups, to think of each other as members of a common group
    • doesn't eliminate in group favoritism, but harnesses and redirects it
  9. if your group is threatened
    • your motivated to est your groups positive and distinctive group ID
    • how? put other groups down
    • -prejudice and discrimination
  10. social ID
    • ID you share with others (group)
    • if you have a strong social ID your fused  with a group
    • comes at expensive of personal ID
  11. personal ID
    • what we believe makes us unique
    • hard to keep this ID strong when your in a group (sometimes you merge with it)
    • how good a person feels about themselves
  12. social ID theory
    • feel good about yourself *important
    • join a group that is valued *well known
    • increase perceived worthiness of the social groups to which you already belong
  13. optimal distinction theory
    • balance between belonging and individuality (distinctiveness/inclusiveness)
    • mid point balance between social/personal ID
  14. basking in reflective glory
    a part of a well known group who always get rewards..., you feel good
  15. implicit memory
    • everything you ever heard is in your subconscious memory
    • ex: stereotype

    • 2 types
    • priming-puts you in a category
    • IAT- measure similarities and differences
  16. explicit memory
    • controllable conscious memory
    • measures used to study explicit memory: self report
  17. procedural
    bicycle memory (procedure)
  18. sematic memory
    facts, things you learn
  19. episodic memory
    personal experience
  20. priming
    • puts you in a category
    • subconscious memory
  21. category specific deficits
    • found in young kids, never changes
    • disorder you cant fix
    • damage to front part of left temporal lobe-difficulty identifying humans
    • damage where temporal and occipital lobes meet-trouble naming tools
  22. exemplar theory
    • what/who you've already met
    • comparing and categorizing
  23. prototype theory
    • set standards, ideal, never met
    • compare to real people
    • **if you get enough people that don't fit into this imaginary category, slowly this idea weakens and changes to make a new category
  24. (Heuristics)
    avaliabiltiy bias
    the more often you hear something, the more likely you will think it is true in the future.
  25. (heuristics)
    conjunction fallacy
    • decrease likleyness of all things being true of a person
    • the more info feed to you on a person the more likely you think its true
    • more links.....
    • -->> nancy is a bank teller with a BA
    • ---->> linda has a BA so she must be a bank teller
  26. representativeness heuristic
    making judgments about the probability of an event under uncertainty
  27. framing effect
    people react differently to a particular choice depending on whether it is presented as a loss or as a gain
  28. prospect theory
    • people simplify available information
    • choose prospect that offers best value
  29. frequency format hyp
    how often things occur not how likely they are
  30. belief bias
    people process info diff. when they believe in it or not
  31. challenge respose
    rise to the occasion
  32. slow learning system
    • guides you through the day w/o demanding much conscious thought
    • ex: driving and not remembering how you got somewhere
    • frees up cog resources so you can use fast learning sys to rehearse the activities for the day and plan future events
  33. fast learning system
    • allows you to learn fast from limited exposure
    • use when you want to master new challenges
  34. phenotypicality
    feature of face that are typical for a member of a certain racial and ethnic group
  35. fusiform face area (FFA)
    • area in brain at is largely responsible for face processing
    • explains own race bias
    • greater activation helps with better memory of faces
    • out group members more spontaneously responded to with threat
  36. own race bias
    people are better able to distinguish and remember faces of people from their own race than from other races
  37. threat response
    • escape situation or protect ourselves against harm
    • shooter bias
    • --->more sensitive towards cues of danger
  38. old fashion racism
    • openly racial
    • discrimination norm
    • okay to show hostiliy
  39. modern racism
    • not out in open
    • against the law
    • --->though not always followed
    • **modern racism line "no such thing as discrimination"
  40. aversive rascism
    • how people resolve conflicting no prej. explicit attitudes
    • genuinely believe their non-prejudice
    • reflects bias of those who are politically liberal
    • well intentioned and want to do whats right
    • behave unbiased
  41. symbolic rascism
    • political behavior
    • expression of prejudice in form of opposition to certain policies
    • combo of politically conservative individualistic values and negative feelings
    • ex: express feelings indirectly toward a group and not a person "if blacks tried harder..."
  42. stigma
    • a mark that distinguishes a person or group and sets it apart physically, socially, or psychologically
    • disapproving characteristics
    • people who don't fit the norm
    • how others perceive you
  43. stigmatized
    • difference based on some distinguishing characteristic that devalues the person or group who possesses it
    • group of people
    • ex:blacks
  44. tribal stigma
    • idea of shunning
    • ex: omish
  45. overt stigma
    easy, visible to see
  46. hidden stigma
    • usually trying to hide the stigma
    • added stress, have to work hard to hide it
    • people with concealed stigmas frequently experience heightened feelings of uniqueness and isolation
    • ex: dyslexia
  47. group ID
    • we have a lot of ID
    • hierarchy- organized like this depending on how important a group is to least important groups
  48. stigma pressures
    • both situational and personal
    • confirming stereotypes
  49. contingencies
    • consequences
    • for every group you belong to, there are good/ bad contingencies
  50. stereotype threat and 2 responses
    • a person reminded of a stereotype that can influence performance
    • confirms stereotype, worries about it so much that they can focus on the task at hand and end up confirming it
  51. self esteem and stigma
    disruptive apprehension- anxiety that accompanies the awareness that you are in a stereotype threatening

    situationprotective disidentifaction- define or redefine the self concept so that performance outcomes are not a basis of self-evaluation or personal ID
  52. race
    has a bio assoc. as well as a socially constructed meaning
  53. proscriptive
    • what groups are and what they should be like
    • ex: women should stay home
    • and if they fail to abide they experience backlash
  54. ethnic identity
    refers to the ideas people have of themselves as a member of an ethnic group
  55. ethnicity
    reflects cultural aspects of langu., social patterns, and practices
  56. multidimensional model of racial ID
    • people have hierarchy of social ID's and only one concerns race
    • depending on how noticeable your racial ID is will determine if your race is central to your collective hierarchy
    • public regard- how others feel about your group
    • private regard- how you feel about your group
  57. psychological disengagement of stigma
    • coping with stigma= disengage
    • discounting- your just jealous not serious
    • devaluing- not worth my time
  58. universal context of racism (UCR)
    • rascism=negative outcome=targets as a result are more observant and cautious
    • self protection- to look ahead and see it before it happens so you not put in that situation
    • self enhancing- raise your self esteem so high that nothing can get you down.
  59. cross racial communication
    • stress influences the quality of intergroup communication
    • -attributional ambiguity- the way people interpret statements or behaviors of others when their intentions aren't obvious ex: mean girls
    • - racial paralysis- freezing
    • - pluralistic ignorance- misunderstanding of the intentions and desire of others
  60. disassociate from the group
    denial and discrimination
  61. 3 ways to enhance  social ID
    • social mobility-leave one group for another
    • social creativity- positive distinction, emphasize difference to make your group better
    • competition- do something to assert power ex: beating someone
  62. schadenfreude
    pleasure we feel when the outgroup suffers
  63. social roles
    zimbarbo prison study- power and privilege to some profession

    • we judge people by what they do
    • its easy to be sympathetic to one person than a group
    • ex: donate $ to a poor girl in Africa instead of giving to africans
  64. objectification
    feeling like a body and not like a person
  65. social justification theory
    • similar to social dominance ordinance
    • -society sets up hierarchy
    • -tells us which is best group (stereotypes and prejudice)
  66. scape goat theory
    • putting the blame on someone else
    • ex:bad eco situation then we tend to blame on immigrant
  67. relative deprivation
    • egoistic deprivation
    • fraternal deprivation
  68. functions of hindbrain
    • -the lower brain stem responsible for basic physiological functions such as respiration and heart
    • rate
    • -The cerebellum is
    • centrally involved in locomotion and balance
  69. functions of midbrain
    • The upper brain stem responsible for regulating waking and sleeping and for controlling general arousal
    • Nerve fibers associated with movement
  70. functions of forebrain
    • -The largest and most
    • complex brain structure
    • -Its most important
    • structures include the hypothalamus, the thalamus, and other structures of the limbic system, as well as the cerebrum and cerebral cortex.
  71. limbic system
    sends info to all diff parts of the cerebral cortex. interact together, build pathways bc the more often you think something it is deeper in brain
  72. amygdala
    • how we react to others
    • sensitive to novel people, and objects and acts rapidly to signal a threat
  73. practical reasoning
    how to act
  74. theoretical reasoning
    what to follow
  75. belief bias
    focus on conclusion instead of argument
  76. cognitive control
    alter and control initial impulses
  77. predicament
    is an unpleasant troublesome or trying situation from which it is difficult to extricate myself

    • situations that cause predicament
    • -awareness of devalued quality of ones social ID
    • -stereotype threat
    • -experience with prejudice and -discrimination
    • - attritional ambiguity
  78. category divide hyp
    differences between two people from different groups are believed to reflect essential differences, theses differences can be exaggerated
  79. self fulfilling prophecy
    requires 2 people
  80. enculturation
    - functioning effectively in your own culture
  81. acculturation
    -focusing on acquiring knowledge and accepting different culture, modified when you come into contact with a different culture
  82. suppression
    • gets in way of cognitive capacity
    • -less space in brain to focus on task
    • -"don't be prej, don't be prej"
  83. racial socialization
    families that inform children about how race affects personal and group ID, interpersonal and interpersonal relations, and position is social hierarchy
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PSY psychology of prejudice
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