Response to Intervention
procedure to provide earlier help to students at risk for school failure.
ongoing assessment of student learning and behavior in response to instructional goals and objectives
Tiers of scientifically based interventions
emerged from the use of standard protocols. at least three tiers provided applied to address both academic and behavioral problems
- primary intervention
- high-quality, research based instruction in the regular classroom. includes screening to find students who may potentially need more help to succeed as well as progress monitoring.
- secondary intervention
- may include 8-12 specific, research-based strategies to meet the student's learning needs
- tertiary intervention
- includes individual services, such as those provided on special education.
Curriculum-based Measurement (CBM)
most common method of monitoring academic progress. "is the student learning what is being taught?" use test, quizzes, worksheets, and assignments to answer this question.
Research or scientifically based practices
the research that document these strategies must be rigorous, systematic, objective, and provide reliable evidence. It should be peer reviewed.
begins with working together as equal partners with shared vision, goals, and principles.
teachers first consider how and where they can identify evidence-based intervention to support instruction. then discuss what types of additional supports and the nature of differentiation needed. finally, these feedback to determine the effectiveness of the intervention.
Teacher responsibilities in RTI
- participate in the application of universal screening instrument
- effective teachers spend more time on instructional activities and have more engaged-time with students
- instructional activities must be appropriate for the students and for their academic development
- collaboration is essential
- applying progress monitoring
what occurs before the behavior, the nature of the behavior, and the consequences
Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA)
- not in itself an intervention
- process used to identify what are potentially the most helpful interventions
- function or impact of behavior fit broadly into 5 categories:
- to receive social attention or communicate
- to gain access to tasks or preferred activities
- to escape, delay of avoid a task or activity
- to avoid someone
- to receive sensory stimulation
Steps of FBA
- 1. Describing the behavior
- 2. Collecting information about when the behavior occurs and does not occur
- 3. Collect data from as many sources as possible
- 4.Developing hypotheses about the behavior
- 5. Identify another behavior that can be taught
- 6.Testing the hypothesis
- 7. Evaluating the intervention
Positive Behavioral Support
- student is viewed within the environments in which the student received education.
- emphasizes creating new experiences, relationships, and skills
- long-term efforts attempting to make changes in the environment, develop skills, and develop behavioral consequences.
Evaluating the intervention plan
- a quality intervention:
- consistent with the function of the behavior and is appropriate in the context in which it occurs;
- has been demonstrated to be effective;
- is accepted by those responsible for its implementation; and
- is consistent with the skill level and commitment of the individuals who will be implementing it.
- the behavior being changed
- best if focused on one at a time
- must be observable
collecting and recording baseline data
- grounded in functional behavioral assessment (FBA)
- used to determine the effectiveness of intervention during the evaluation step of the behavior change process
- intervention is only as effective as its reinforcers
- if the behavior is not reinforced there is little probability that the change will be permanent
advantage: provides the child the opportunity to learn to select reasonable and positive reinforcers.
disadvantage: many children have difficulty making reasonable selections because of lack of experience in decision making.
disadvantage: different children value different consequences. It is nearly impossible to identify any event or item that will serve as a positive reinforcer for all children
- manual or verbal assistance during the behavior change process
- supplemental stimuli that control the desired behavior but that are not a part of the desired final stimulus
when a child is initially exhibiting a new appropriate behavior it must be positively reinforced each time. once the target behavior is established at a satisfactory rate the child's behavior should be reinforced intermittently.
- systematic, immediate reinforcement of successive approximations of the target behavior until the behavior is established
- only reinforces behavioral manifestations that most closely approximate the desired behavior
- knowing when to progress from one level to the next is key
forward shaping or chaining
- graduated guidance
- student begins the task and gradually receives only reinforcement when a portion of the task beyond that completed independently in the past is finished.
the task is almost finished, and the steps that the student must complete independently are gradually backed up
process of contracting so that the child gets to do something he or she wants to do following completing something the parent or teacher wants the child to do.
cognitive behavior management
- learner become increasingly aware of their cognative processes and knowledge of how behavior influences academic and behavioral outcomes.
- includes observational learning, self-instruction, and self monitoring
Briefly describe conflict resolution
the process of ending a disagreement between two or more people in a constructive fashion for all parties involved
What is one Love and Logic strategy for dealing with conflict?
When dealing with conflict stay calm.
1. A student has just moved to the area from Japan and will be in your second grade class. What are two ways to make this student and his culture accepted and viewed as important? Refer to the tips we learned about creating a culturally accepting classroom.
-Display a world map that can highlight where he is from. -Find books about his culture to add to the classroom bookshelf. -Implement a project that allows all students to tell the class where they are from.
Dylan has trouble keeping his hands to himself throughout the day. Use the 4 step behavior management strategy to devise a way to stop the unwanted behavior.
Identify: Keeping hands to himself. Model: Compliment other students who are keeping their hands to themselves. Practice: Give him time to learn that that touching other people is inappropriate and continuously encourage him to keep his hands to himself. Reinforce: Praise the student when he has learned to keep his hands to himself.
a person's social environment
Give an example of natural reinforcement.
anything with a consequence that is set by nature (getting out of the rain)
What are 3 key factors to remember when arranging your room?
safety, lighting, storage
what are a few ways to arrange desk in a classroom
groups, U shape, aisles
School personnel must go through what in order to use physical restraint?
When should You seclude a student from your classroom?
as a last resort
Name the 3 process underlying social skills
seeing, thinking, doing
how do you know a student has mastered a social skill
the student is able to demonstrate the skill across all situations
What are three ways to communicate with parents?
Phone- Newsletter- Parent teacher conference- Email
Why is parent involvement key?
Because parent involvement is the number one factor in helping students be successful. It creates a sense of community in the classroom and out.