Exam III. 4 (Ferns)

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  1. a.      Dominant part is the __and has __

                                                                  i.      May not produce __but it depends on __
    b.      One of basic differences between bryophytes and other plants is __
    • sporophyte 
    • xylem and phloem
    • seeds 
    • the plant that produces it
    • bryophytes lack vascular tissue
  2. a.      Life Cycle of a Typical Fern:
    Spore produced by __ where?-> __--> structure 
    that is what?--> instead of just dividing in one plane, they do what, producing what? (__); what shape and color
    • meiosis 
    • __inside a sporangium
    • germination
    • is reminiscent of a green alga (single chain of cells that has rhizoids coming off of it= called protonema)
    • divide in a second plane, producing a sheet of cells
    • mature gametophyte
    • heart shaped that is photosynthetic (green)
  3. 1.      Usually produces both __ and __ (location of each)
    a.      Possible for __; but, this is often prevented because __
                                                                                                                                          i.      Archegonium is __than bryophytes
                                                                                                                                        ii.      Sperm swims from __ to __
    • archegonia and antheridia
    • antheridia usually  below and archegonia in the center
    • self-fertilization
    • they don’t mature at the same time
    • shorter 
    • antheridia to the archegonia
  4. a.      Archegonia and antheridia are produced on the __, allowing for what?
    • underside
    • the gametophyte to be right on the surface of the soil, allowing water to be between the soil and the gametophyte
  5. a.      11,000 species of ferns; much larger group; about ¾ are __
                                                                  i.      People associate ferns with __
                                                                ii.      ¼ are __
    1.      Maybe __species of ferns that are native to the US
    2.      Used as __a lot
    3.      Like __ and a cold house in the winter is not good for it
    • tropical
    • tropical areas
    • temperate
    • 80 
    • houseplants 
    • humid places
  6. As a group, they vary a lot in size. There are how many extremes and what are they?
    •                                                               i.      Azolla: an aquatic fern (smaller than a finger)
    •                                                             ii.      Tree ferns: large (definitely tropical; size of small trees)
    •                                                           iii.      Most other ferns fall in between
  7. What is the dominant part?
    •                                                               i.      The dominant part seen in these pictures are sporophytes
    •                                                             ii.      THE DOMINANT PART WILL BE THE SPOROPHYTE
  8. Explain their vascularity.
    • a.      Have true stems, true leaves, and true roots because the definition of true is that it has vascular tissue
    • b.      They usually have horizontal underground stems
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Usually, all you see are the leaves and the rest is underground
    • 1.      There are horizontal underground stems, called rhizomes, NOT RHIZOIDS
  9.                                                               i.      Ferns are unique in that they have __(not just ferns have this, but, what makes them unique is that ferns have coiling to a large extent)
    1.      The process that produces it is called __
    a.      As a young leaf is developing, what happens?
    • fiddleheads 
    • circinate vernation
    • one grows faster than the other
  10. Explain the growth.
                                                                                                                                          i.      If one side grows faster than the other, there will be bending on the side that grows rapidly; the upperside grows slower than the underside until adulthood, when the upperside speeds up
  11. What is the advantage of coiling?

    What is the stem usually covered by?
    • 1.      Advantage of coiling: protection of the upper surface of the leaf
    • 2.      The stem is usually covered by small, brown, scalelike leveaves
  12. a.      On any leaf, expanded portion is the __
                                                                  i.      How does the blade vary?
    1.      There are a lot of leaves whose blades are what?

    a.      The more divisions, the more __they appear
    • blade
    • Different degrees on how that blade is dissected into smaller parts
    • not dissected at all
    • lacey
  13. a.      In a typical fern, you find the sporangia on the __
                                                                  i.      Typical lifestyle of __
    1.      Typical sporophyte with __, etc
    a.      For a lot of ferns, any one of the fronds can do what?
                                                                                                                                          i.      Sometimes, that’s not the case
    1.      Sometimes, only what?
    • underside of the frond (leaves)
    • homosporous (one type of spore) fern
    • frond, fiddlehead, rhizome, roots, 
    • produce spores in sporangia
    • a portion will produce a spore
  14. a.      Diplobiontic life cycles
    Homosporous: explain?
                                                                  i.      sporesà gametophyte (result of this where gametophyte prdouces both sperm and eggs)à produces antheridia and archogoniaà produce eggs and spermà fertilizationà zygoteà sporophyte
  15. Explain the coloring
    • a.      Patches of brown on the underside of the leaf is a common color
    •                                                               i.      Sorus: collection of sporangia that may appear brown in color
  16. a.      Cells inside sporangium divide by __to produce __
                                                                  i.      Typical sporangium shaped a lot like your head (explain what this means)
    2.      If you start out with a whole row of cells, when they lose water, the cells become __
    a.      Causes __ together
    b.      Wall cells are very __; what can happen?
    • meiosis 
    • spores
    • One single layer of cells that has a really thick wall that starts about, where your nose would be, and will become like a Mohawk
    • super narrow
    • clumping
    • thinwalled
    • water cal go through them
  17.                                                               i.      As the cells get shorter what happens?
    1.      As the annulus gets shorter, what happens/
    2.      As they lose water, what happens?
    • the other cells get shorter eventually open up
    • it gets pulled back; they have a tendency for fall apart
    • they get narrower and narrower but have spring to them and want to the spring back
  18. a.      The force for them to __ is more than the molecule
                                                                                                                                          i.      Acts as a __
    1.      It does what?

    2.      What disperses them
    • swing back
    • slingshots
    • throws the spores out
    • wind
  19.                                                               i.      Wall looks __ color
    1.      Spores are unusually __
                                                                ii.      If a spore lands on a male gametophyte, or vice versa, __
                                                              iii.      Gametophyte
                                                              iv.      Embryo (contains __)
    • reddish or rusty under
    • yellow
    • foot, root; rhizomes
  20. a.      Sometimes there is a covering
                                                                  i.      The sporangium are called __: used for what?
    b.      __:        
                                                                  i.      May be along the __
    • indusium
    • protection
    • False indusium
    • edGe of the leaf
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Exam III. 4 (Ferns)
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