Biology Ch 4

  1. What Does DNA stand for?

    What does Deoxy mean?
    Deoxyribonucleic Acid

    Deoxy means "no oxy" or no oxygen - less one oxygen
  2. What does RNA mean?
    Ribonucleic Acid
  3. What is Organic Chemistry?
    The study of compounds that contain Carbon
  4. How does carbon enter the biosphere?
    through the action of plants that use the CO2 out of the atmosphere along with solar energy to make glucose. the producers are then eaten by consumers passing the carbon on.
  5. Most organic compounds contain what two elements?

    What other elements are important to life?
    Carbon and Hydrogen

    Oxygen, Nitrogen, Sulfur, Phosperous
  6. Vitalism

    belief in a life force outside the jurisdiction of physical and chemical laws (foundation of early organic chemistry)

    belief that physical and chemical laws govern all phenomena, including life
  7. Why is Carbon so important?
    Carbon has 6 electrons -2 in first shell, 4 in valence = TETRAVALENCE

    need 4 more electrons to be stable to forms all kinds of bonds
  8. Tetrahedral
    when carbon forms 4 single covalent bonds the arrangement is similar to a pyramid . The bond angles are 109.5o
  9. Structural formula of CO2
  10. What happens when two carbons form a double bond?
    All the bonds around those carbons are on the same plane - the molecule is flat
  11. Carbon Skeletons
    • C-C-C-C
    • Carbon chains for the skeletons of most organic molecules
  12. hydrocarbons
    • molecules that consist of only carbons and hydrogens arranged in different ways
    • (hydrocarbons are the major component of petrolium)
    • Fats = store energy
  13. 3 types of carbon skeletons
    • 1. Unbranched
    • 2. Branched
    • 3. Rings
    • Image Upload 1
  14. Isomer
    two molecules have the same molecular formula but different structural formulas

    • C6H12O6 = Glucose
    • C6H12O6 = Fructose (sweeter than glucose)

  15. Geometric Isomers
    Difference depends on a doulbe bond and the arrangements of the atoms around the double bond.

    Image Upload 2
  16. Enantiomers
    isomers that have mirror images of each other (right hand and left hand)

    • important in pharmaceutical
    • thalidomide - (50 & 60s) reduced morning sickness but enantiomer caused birth defects
    • ibuprophen - reduces pain and inflamation but enantiomer does nothing
    • albuterol - asthma but enantiomer counteracts the effect
  17. Functional Groups
    different chemical groups that bond to a carbon skeleton and alter its function by changing its shape or by being directly involved in chemical reactions
  18. What are the six functional groups and what group goes with them?
    • hydroxyl
    • carbonyl
    • carboxyl
    • amino
    • sulfhydryl
    • phosphate

    methyl - not a functional group
  19. why is methyl not a functional group?
    The six functional groups are hydrophiluic and increase solubility of organic compounds in water

    The methyl group is hydrophobic and acts as a recognizable tag on biological molecules
  20. Homeostasis
  21. ATP

    • Adenosine Triphosphate - Three Phosphate groups - stores the potental to react with water - when it reacts with water it produces energy and ADP (looses a phosphate - Adenosine Diphosphate)
    • Image Upload 3
  22. Equation for Photoshythesis
    sun + 6 CO2 + 6 H2O → C6H12O6 + 6 O2
  23. Hydroxyl Group
    • -OH
    • AlcOHols
    • Hydrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom which is bonded to a carbon skeleton
    • Ethanol (alcoholic beverages)
    • Image Upload 4
  24. Carbonyl Group
    • =CO
    • Carbon atom joined to an oxygen atom by a double bond

    Called Keytones if the corbonyl group is attached to a carbon in the middle of the skeleton (acetone)

    • Called Aldehydes if the carbonyl group is attached to a carbon at the end of the skeleton (propanal)
    • Image Upload 5
  25. Carboxyl group
    • -COOH
    • Carboxylic Acid
    • An oxygen atom is double bonded to a carbon atom that is bonded to an -OH (Hydroxyl) group
    • Acetic Acid (which is in vinegar)
    • Image Upload 6
  26. Amino Group
    • -NH2
    • Amines
    • Nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms and to the carbon skeleton
    • Amino acids are carbon skeletons with both an Amino Group and a Carboxyl groups attachedImage Upload 7
  27. Sulfhydryl Group
    • -SH
    • Thiols (present in amino acids)
    • Sullfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom
    • Image Upload 8
  28. Phosphates
    • -OPO32-
    • phosphorus atom bonded to 4 oxygen atoms - one oxygen is bonded to the carbon skeleton - two oxygens carry negative charges
    • *Relases energy when it reacts with water*
    • ATP - Adenosine Triphosphate (tri = 3 energy)
    • ADP- Adenosine Diphosphate (di=2 energy)
    • Image Upload 9
  29. Methyl Group
    • -CH3
    • NOT a functional group - HYDROPHOBIC
    • carbon bonded to three hydrogen atoms (methy group may be attached to carbon or a different atom)
    • Vital for Hormones - methy groups in sex hormones affect their shape and function
  30. Image Upload 10
Card Set
Biology Ch 4
Lecture of Chapter 4