NTD205 quiz 3

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  1. three classes of grading eggs?
    • grade AA
    • grade A
    • grade B
  2. grading is based on?
    • outside and inside quality, not size
    • does not effect on nutritional status
  3. candling?
    when light comes up through the egg and you can see inside of it
  4. what is looked for during candling?
    look for developing embryos
  5. egg pasteurization?
    whole egg is at 140 degrees F for 3.5 minutes
  6. where must egg dish temps be kept?
    below 41F or above 135F
  7. egg safety?
    • do not consume raw eggs
    • salmonella could be on shells
    • refrigerate promptly
  8. egg storage is best below?
    70 degrees F
  9. nutrients found in eggs?
    • minerals
    • cholesterol
    • choline
    • lecithin
    • protein
    • fat
    • fats soluble vitamins
  10. what part of the egg provides fat?
  11. what part of the egg provides protein?
    egg white or albumen
  12. where is the most cholesterol located in the egg?
  13. dry heat methods of cooking eggs?
    • baking(shirred eggs, quiche)
    • sautéing (scrambled eggs, omelets, frittatas)
    • pan-frying (sunny side up)
  14. moist heat methods of cooking eggs?
    • in shell cooking, simmering (hard boiled eggs)
    • poaching
  15. what functions do eggs provide in cooking/baking?
    • they add texture
    • fluffy
    • color
    • flavor
  16. diff between fats and oils?
    • fats are solid at room temp
    • oils are liquid at room temp
  17. a type of fat that remains liquid at room tem p
  18. the temperature at which a fat begins to break down and smoke
    smoke point
  19. the temperature at which a fat ignites and small flames appear
    on the surface of the fat
    flash point
  20. a chemical change caused by exposure to air, light or heat (when food spoils)
  21. solid at room temp?
  22. methods in which oils are extracted?
    • cold pressing
    • expeller pressing
    • chemical solvent
  23. fats and oils are composed of?
    • 100% fat
    • either animal or plant
    • 9 kcal per gram
  24. oils with saturated fats?
    palm and coconut oil
  25. an elastic network of proteins created when wheat flour is moistened and manipulated
  26. the chemical name for common refined sugar, it is a disaccharide composed of one molecule each of glucose and fructose
  27. proteins do this, solidify when heated
  28. sugars do this when heated, adding flavor and causing the product to darken
  29. the residual heat contained in the hot baking pan and within the product itself continue the baking process at the product cools
    carryover baking
  30. the process whereby starch molecules in a batter or dough lose moisture after baking, the result is baked goods that are dry or stale
    starch retrogradation
  31. a living organism that feeds on carbs present in the starches and sugars in bread dough
  32. the process by which yeast converts sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide aka the time it refers to the time that yeast dough is left to rise
  33. large tubular holes in muffins an cakes, a defect caused by improper mixing
  34. purpose of flour in baking?
    • prevents foods from sticking together
    • thickening
  35. characteristics of flour in baking?
    • carbs
    • corn, rice, wheat
    • gluten
  36. what are the basic ingredients in baking?
    • flour
    • sugar
    • eggs
    • milk
    • butter
  37. purpose of sugar in baking?
    • add flavor, color
    • help leavening process through creaming or foaming
    • shorten gluten strands
    • help extend shelf life
  38. list the purpose of butter in baking?
    • flavor
    • color
    • moisture
    • richness
    • help leavening process
    • extend shelf life
    • shorten gluten strands
  39. steps in baking process?
    • gases form and are trapped in gluten
    • starches gelatinize
    • proteins coagulate
    • fat melts
    • water evaporates and produces steam
    • sugar carmelizes
    • carryover baking
    • staling
  40. gases that leaven baked goods?
    • air
    • steam
    • carbon dioxide
  41. three different quick bread mixing techniques?
    • biscuit
    • muffin
    • creaming
  42. biscuit mix technique fat and results?
    • solid (chilled)
    • flaky dough
  43. muffin mix technique fat and result?
    • liquid (oil)
    • soft, tender, cakelike
  44. creaming mix technique fat and result?
    • softened
    • rich, tender, cakelike
  45. leavning agents for quick bread?
    • baking soda
    • baking powder
    • baking ammonia
  46. leavening agents for yeast bread?
    • active dry yeast
    • sourdough starter
    • or the chemical kinds like baking powder or soda
  47. define yeast and discuss what happens in the fermentation process
    yeast feeds on carbs present in the starches and sugars. During fermentation, it releases CO2 which leavens the bread
  48. what are the factors that control fermentation?
    • volume
    • concentration
    • temperature
    • amount
  49. steps in making yeast bread?
    • scaling
    • mixing and kneading
    • fermenting the dough
    • punching down the dough
    • portioning out
    • proofing
    • baking
    • cooling and storing
  50. scaling?
    accurate measurements
  51. mixing and kneading?
    worked with hands or by machine to combine the ingredients
  52. fermenting the dough?
    bulk fermentation and proofing, letting it rise
  53. punching down the dough/
    reactivates the yeast cells, encouraging more yeast activity
  54. proofing?
    final rise of fermentation before baking
  55. what promotes staling?
  56. what is the best temperature range for yeast activity?
    room temperature
  57. different types of flour?
    • cake
    • pastry
    • all purpose
    • bread
    • whole wheat
    • high gluten
  58. protein content of cake flour?
    lowest 6-8
  59. protein content of pastry flour?
    low, 7-9.5
  60. protein content of all purpose flour?
    in the middle, 9.5-12
  61. protein content of bread flour/
    mid high, 11.5-14
  62. protein content of whole wheat flour?
    higher than all but 1, 13-14
  63. protein content of high gluten flour?
    highest, 13.5.-14.5
  64. mixing methods?
    • beating
    • blending
    • creaming
    • cutting
    • folding
    • kneading
    • sifting
    • stirring
    • whipping
  65. vigorously agitating foods to incorporate air or develop
  66. mixing two or more ingredients until evenly distributed
  67. vigorously combining fat and sugar while incorporating air
  68. incorporating solid fat into dry ingredients only until lumps of the desired size remain
  69. very gently incorporating ingredients such as whipped cream or whipped eggs with dry ingredients, a batter or cream
  70. working a dough to develop gluten
  71. passing one or more dry ingredients through a wire mesh to remove lumps and combine and aerate
  72. gently mixing ingredients by hand until evenly distributed and blended
  73. beating vigorously to incorporate air
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NTD205 quiz 3
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