What three functions do adjectives play?
Attributive, substantival, and predicate
it gives a quality, or an attribute to the word it is modifying.
it agrees with the word it modifies in case, number, and gender.
- functions as if it were a noun.
- ex. the good, the bad, and the ugly are all welcome here.
- case is determined by its function in the sentence.
- Gender and Number are determined by what it stands for.
- asserts something about the subject and the verb "to be" is usually stated or implied.
- ex. God is good.
What case, number, and gender to adjectives appear in?
All of them.
how do you identify which function an adjective is performing?
it depends on the whether the definite article is present or not.
How do you determine if the adjective is attributive?
if there is a noun to modify, and the article occurs immediately before the adjective then it is attributive. the adjective can come before or after the noun. but the adjective must be preceded by the article.
how do you determine if the adjective is substantival?
if the article occurs immediately before the adjective and there is no noun for the adjective to modify, it is probably functioning substantivally.
how do you determine if an adjective is functioning as a predicate?
if the noun is articular but the adjective is anarthrous then it is functioning as a predicate.
What if there is no article before either the noun or the adjective?
context becomes the guide for translation.
Article and prepositional phrase:
often the article is followed by a prepositional phrase "article-noun-article modifier" construction. The second article tells you the prepositional phrase is modifying the noun. other times the article is in effect turning the prepositional phrase into a substantive. this generally translated as a relative clause.
what is a 2-2 adjective?
an adjective in which both the masculine and feminine forms follow the 2nd declention
1. If the next to the last letter in the stem of an adjective is a rho or a vowel, what does the feminine stem end in?
2. what about adjectives that do not end in rho or a vowel?
- 1. alpha - so the genitive singular and the accusative plural will both be "as" (alpha-sigma).
- 2. eta- then "as" will only be the accusative plural.
the final stem in all feminine nouns will be alpha.