pharm gi 4

  1. Laxatives -- osmotics drugs
    lactulose (sugar), magnesium sulfate (salt), magnesium hydroxide (salt), magnesium citrate (salt), sodium phosphate (salt), polyethylene glycol (alcohol/sugar)
  2. osmotic laxatives MOA
    create an osmotic force in the lumen that draws water into the stool, resulting in more viscosity and more bulk. salts are more potent that sugars, but sugars are especially useful for opiate constipation and the elderly (or both!).
  3. osmotic laxatives side effects
    diarrhea. sugars = abdominal distension/flatulence. salts = electrolyte imbalances.
  4. Laxatives -- softeners drugs
  5. stool softeners MOA
    docusate salts are surfactants that allow mixing of aqueous and fatty substances in the stool. they also increases intestinal fluid secretion.
  6. mineral oil MOA
    slows absorption of water in the colon and softens the stool.
  7. mineral oil side effects
    N/V/D, perianal irritation, abdominal cramps, weakness, dizziness, syncope. messes with absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. do not administer hs due to danger of lipid pneumonitis.
  8. Laxatives -- peripheral opioid antagonists drugs
  9. peripheral opioid antagonists MOA
    activation of ยต opioid receptors in the gut slows things down. antagonization of these receptors increases peristalsis in the colon.
  10. Cannabinoid agonists drugs
    dronabinol (THC), nabilone, cannabidiol
  11. Cannabinoid antagonists drugs
  12. Cannabinoid receptors
    cannabinoid receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors found throughout the body, including in the mesolimbic dopamine pathway (reward pathway), and importantly here CB1 receptors in the hypothalamus are associated with feeding. These receptors are also found in adipocytes.
  13. Cannabinoid agonists pharmacokinetics
    oral bioavailability low to due first-pass metabolism. THC and its metabolites are both active.
  14. Cannabinoid antagonists pharmacokinetics
    lipophilic with very long half life (6-9 days, 16 days in obese pts due to fatty tissue deposits)
  15. Cannabinoid agonists indications
    emesis (chemo), anorexia (AIDS), neuropathic pain (MS)
  16. Cannabinoid antagonists indications
    smoking cessation, obesity
  17. Cannabinoid agonists contraindications
    CVD, hepatic/renal impairment, hx of psychosis, pregnancy
  18. Cannabinoid agonists side effects
    CNS (euphoria, drowsiness, impaired sensory perception), CV (tachy, hypotensive)
  19. Cannabinoid antagonists side effects
    nausea, severe depression
Card Set
pharm gi 4
pharm gi 4