Whooping Cough PP

  1. Whooping Cough
  2. -A Gram negative coccobacilli
    • -Genus: Bordetella
    • -species: pertussis
    • -Disease AKA Pertussis
    • -DPaT vaccine last 10-12 years
    • -DPT 1949
    • -Many adults may develop a mild case, some cases often serious
    • -Incubation period 7-10 days
  3. Bordetella Pertussis - Pathogenesis
    • -B.pertussis interferes with the action of the ciliated epithelial cells of the trachea.
    • -B. pertussis survives in phagocytes.
    • -Pertussis is mainly a pediatric disease reported in children 5 years and younger.
    • -Mild cases are common.
    • -There is a persistant cough and may be misdiagnosed as bronchitis.
  4. Serious Pertussis Cases
  5. =Pneumonia, convulsions, bacteremia
    • -Brain inflammation (encephalopathy)
    • -Possible death in children due to cyanosis
    • -Severe coughing can compromise respiration and/or cause vomiting.
    • -Individuals may be more susceptible to secondary infections such as TB.
  6. Adult Symptoms
  7. -Note that a cough which lasts more than 2 weeks may be pertussis and the person is contagious during the coughing stage. -If the case is self limiting, the cough will cease in 3 months.
    • -Weight loss may occur due to the excessive coughing and vomiting
    • -Often misdiagnosed.
  8. Haemophilus (Genus)
  9. -Species – influenzae
    • -Gram negative pleomorphic bacilli
    • -Normal flora of the nasopharynx
    • -Specific infections include meningitis, otitis media, otitis interna, epiglottis, infantile arthritis, pharyngitis
    • -Note: No Flu
    • -1/3 children die, 1/3 suffer brain damage
  10. Quack
  11. -Cone filled with herbs, spices & dried flowers
  12. Tularemia (AKA Rabbit Fever)
  13. -Genus: Francisella
    • -species: tularensis
    • -Gram negative coccobacilli
    • -Hosts include mammals, birds, fish, and blood-sucking ticks and insects
    • -Most common is US are rabbits, muskrats and ticks
    • -No human to human spread
  14. Tularemia Transmission
  15. -Bite of an infected tick or contact with an infected animal
    • -Infected animal urine or saliva
    • -Consuming infected meat not properly cooked (rabbit or deer)
    • -Drinking contaminated water
    • -Inhaling bacteria in aerosols
    • -Penetrates unbroken shin
  16. Tularemia Symptoms
  17. -Ulcers at the site of contact
    • -Fever and chills
    • -Malaise and fatigue
    • -Eye infections
    • -Enteritis
    • -Swollen lymph nodes
  18. Legionellosis
  19. -AKA Legionnaire’s Disease
    • -Genus: Legionella
    • -species: pneumophilia
    • -Gram negative polymorphic bacilli
    • -An epidemic pneumonia affecting 2000 American Legion members at a convention in Philadelphia in 1976.(34,29 deaths).
  20. Legionellosis continued
  21. -Found growing in the air-conditioning vents at the Hotel (condensation)
    • -Transmission
    • -Humans acquire the disease by inhaling the organism from aerosols such as showers, vaporizers, spa, whirlpools, hot tubs, air conditioning systems, cooling towers and grocery store misters
  22. Anaerobes
  23. -Clostridia and Bacteriodes Characteristics
    • -A. All discharges have a foul odor.
    • -B. The toxins produce a lesion of necrosis.
    • -C. A bubbling effect with gas production.
  24. Tetanus (AKA lockjaw) DPaT
  25. -Genus: Clostridium
    • -Species: tetani
    • -Gram positive terminal spore forming bacilli
    • -Found in dust, soil and GI tracts of animals and humans
    • -Its vegetative cells are sensitive to oxygen
  26. Pathogenesis for Tetanus
  27. -Spores must enter a wound, especially wounds contaminated by soil or feces.
    • -When C. tetani cells in the body die, a potent neurotoxin is produced.
    • -Neurons phagocytize the toxin.
    • -The toxin works its way to the inhibitory neurons and prevents muscle relaxation.
  28. Symptoms of Tetanus
  29. -Begins 3 days to 3 weeks after infection exposure (spores germinate)
    • -First sign is a headache followed by spasms of the jaw.
    • -Sweating, drooling, grouchiness, heart beat irregularities and constant back spasms
    • -Bones may break; respiratory failure; 50% of patients die
  30. Botulism
  31. -Genus: Clostridium
    • -species: botulinum
    • -Infection may be food-borne, infant and wound
    • -Gram positive spore forming bacilli. Common in soil and water.
  32. Pathogenesis of Botulism
  33. -Botulism toxins act by binding irreversibly to neuronal cytoplasmic membranes, thereby preventing the fusion of Ach vesicles to the membrane and the release of Ach into the synapse.
    -The neurotoxins prevent muscle contraction.
  34. Botulism Transmission
  35. -Improperly canned food
    • -Honey fed to children and infants
    • -Contaminated soil and water
  36. Infant Botulism
  37. -Ingestion of spores, which then germinate and colonize their GI tract.
    • -Infant GI tract does not have the proper benign bacteria to compete with C. botulinum for nutrients and space
    • -Lethargy, mild paralysis and SIDS may result.
  38. Wound Botulism
  39. -Begins 4 to more days following the contamination of a wound by spores.
    • -Unhealed naval of an infant, IV drug users and nasal cocaine users (spores enter the nose)
    • -Cutting cocaine: baby powder, laxatives, comet, ajax, powered sugar, etc.
  40. Food Botulism
  41. -Consumption of the toxin from contaminated home canned foods or preserved fish
    -Food may not appear or smell spoiled.
  42. Botulism Symptoms
  43. -Blurred and double vision
    • -Thick speech
    • -Difficulty breathing and swallowing
    • -Paralysis similar to stroke (diaphragm)
    • -Hemorrhage
    • -Dilated pupils
    • -Constipation
  44. Treatment for Botulism
  45. -Antitoxins
    • -Boil canned foods for 15 minutes (kills bacteria and inactivated the toxin)
    • -Antimicrobial drugs
    • -Antibodies
    • -Repeated washing of the intestinal tract
  46. Other uses of Botulism
  47. -Botox is a weakened form of the toxin
    • -Scientists consider Botulism toxins the deadliest of all toxins.
    • -30 grams (1 oz) of the pure toxin would kill all persons in the US.
    • -The toxin blocks the release of Ach and muscles are unable to contract.
  48. Gangrene
  49. -Genus: Clostridium
    • -Species: perfringes
    • -Gram positive spore forming bacilli
    • -Produces 11 toxins that damage RBCs, WBCs, muscle connective tissue
    • -Vascular permeability is also increased
  50. C. perfringes transmission
  51. -Food poisoning: food contaminated with feces and soil
    • -Wound infections: spores entering a wound
    • -Surgical incision, a puncture, a gunshot wound, crushing trauma, or a compund fracture
  52. Symptoms
  53. Food Poisoning:
    • -Abdominal pain and watery diarrhea
    • -No fever, nausea or vomiting
    • Wound infection:
    • -Myonecrosis (death of muscle and connective tissue)
    • -Shock, kidney failure and death may result
  54. C. diff. diarrhea
  55. -Genus: Clostridium
    • -species: difficile
    • -Spore forming bacilli
    • -An inhabitant of the intestinal tract
    • -Occurs only when antibiotic therapy alters the normal intestinal flora, allowing overgrowth of toxin producing C. difficile
  56. C. diff. continued
  57. -Normal intestinal flora inhibit C.difficile multiplication
    • -Antibiotics destroy intestinal flora and C. diff. will multiply.
    • -C. difficile infections cause diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain and may lead to fatal colitis.
  58. C. diff. continued
  59. -Immunosuppressed patients, prolonged hospital recovery ,young children and infants are at high risk for C. diff. diarrhea
    • -C. diff. releases damaging toxins
    • -C. diff. causes ½ of all nosocomial related infections
Card Set
Whooping Cough PP