PK of ophthalmic/ presbyopia and cataracts

  1. autoclaving heat and time
    121 degrees for 15 min
  2. when do sx normally occur for most people with presbyopia
    in their early 40s
  3. what are the s/s of presbyopia
    • eye strain
    • tired
    • burning of eyes
    • HA
  4. how does it effect distant vision
    does not effect
  5. what is the cause of presbyopia
    loss of accomodation
  6. what is myopia
    short sightedness
  7. what is hyperopia
    long sightedness
  8. what is the most common for of correction for presbyopia
  9. what are some magnifying letters that can help compensated for the lack of ability to focus
    • bifocal 
    • multifocal
    • progressive lenses
    • readers
  10. is it ok to use over the counter glasses
    yes but this should not sub for regular eye exams
  11. how ofter should you get eye exams
    every 2 years after the age of 40
  12. other options besides glasses for tx of presbyopia
    • contact lenses 
    • surgery
  13. types of surgery used for presbyopia
    • Conductive keratoplasty
    • laser eye correction
  14. lens replacement is typically used in which type of pts
    older pts or those with cataracts
  15. what type of replacement lenses are available
    multifocal or accomodative intraocular lenses
  16. when does cataracts occur
    when protein builds up on the lenses and blocks some of the light from passing
  17. who can develop cataracts
    old and young people (often related to growing old)

    • elderly 
    • children (injury or illness)
    • babies (congenital cataracts)
  18. what are the visual changes with cataracts
    • blurry vision
    • glare
    • double vision
    • color changes
    • progressive
  19. risk factors that may contribute to cataracts
    • DM
    • smoking
    • excess alcohol use
    • eye injury
    • prolong use of CCS
  20. what exam is used to diagnose cataracts
    slit lamp exam
  21. treatment for cataracts
    surgical removal of cloudy lens
  22. when is surgery indicated for cataracts
    when a pt is unable to perform necessary everyday activity or if your vision loss cant be corrected with glasses or contact lenses
  23. what are the two types of surgery for cataract surgery
    • phacoemulsification- break up lens 
    • extracapsular- removes the lens in one piece
  24. types of intraocular lenses (IOL)
    • crystalens
    • restor
    • rezoom
  25. autoclaving is not suitable for which products
    unstable products
  26. what techniques may be used for sterility and preservation of opthalmic solutions and which is more reliable
    • bacterial filters 
    • autoclave (more reliable)
  27. when should antimicrobial preservatives not be used
    surgery and trauma to the eye
  28. which preservative cannot be autoclaved and why
    chlorobutanol due to heat instability
  29. tears have an osmotic pressure corresponding to what percentage of NaCl
  30. what contributes to osmotic pressure
    all active and inactive products
  31. how does hypertonic/hypotonic solutions affect the eye
    • hyper- will draw water out of eyes
    • hypo- cause eye tissue to swell
  32. what is the pH of tears
  33. what is drug solubility at pH 7.4
    many drugs are insoluble
  34. thickening agents used to increase viscosity include
    • methylcellulose
    • polyvinyl alcohol
    • hydroxypropyl methylcellulose
  35. physiological factors that affect ocular bioavailability
    • protein binding
    • drug metabolism
    • lacrimal drainage
  36. how much protein do tears normally contain
    0.6 to 2% proteins
Card Set
PK of ophthalmic/ presbyopia and cataracts
pt vii