Sociology Chapter 4

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  1. social interaction?
    the process by which people act and react in relation to others
  2. status?
    a social position that a person holds
  3. status set?
    all the statues a person holds at a given time
  4. ascribed status?
    a social position a person receives at birth or takes on involuntarily later in life
  5. achieved status?
    a social position a person takes on voluntarily that reflects a personal ability and effort
  6. master status?
    a status that has special importance for social identity, often shaping a person's entire life
  7. role?
    behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status
  8. role set?
    a number of roles attached to a single status
  9. role conflict?
    conflict among the roles connected to two or more statuses
  10. role strain?
    tension among the roles connected to a single status
  11. social construction of reality?
    the process by which people creatively shape reality through social interaction
  12. Thomas theorem?
    W.I. Thomas's claim that situations defined as real are real in their consequences
  13. enthnomethodology?
    Harold Garfinkel's term for the study of the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings
  14. dramaturgical analysis?
    Erving Goffman's term for the study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance
  15. presentation of self?
    Erving Goffman's terms for a person's efforts to create specific impressions in the minds of others
  16. nonverbal communication?
    communication using body movements, gestures, and facial expressions rather than speech
  17. personal space?
    the surrounding area over which a person makes some claim to privacy
  18. social structure?
    refers to social patterns that guide our behavior in everyday life
  19. what are the building blocks of social structure?
    • status 
    • role
  20. through ________, we construct the reality we experience.
    social interaction
  21. ____________ says that the reality people construct in their interaction has real consequences for the future.
    the thomas theorem
  22. ethnomethodology is a strategy to _______ the ______ people have about their social world.
    • reveal 
    • assumptions
  23. both ______ and _______ shape the reality people construct.
    • culture 
    • social class
  24. __________ are the way we present ourselves to others.
  25. a status operates as a part in a _____ and a role in a _______.
    • play
    • script
  26. performances are both ________ and ________.
    • conscious 
    • unconscious
  27. ________ affects performances because men typically have greater social power than women.
  28. gender differences involve ________, _________, and _______, _________, and _________.
    • demeanor
    • use of space
    • staring
    • smiling 
    • touching
  29. ____________ of performances means we try to convince others that our actions reflect ideal culture rather than self fish motives.
  30. _____________ is the "loss of face" in a performance. people use _______ to help others "save face".
    • embarrassment
    • tact
  31. what are the three applications in everyday life?
    • emotions
    • language
    • humor
  32. emotions?
    are important dimension of everyday life. involve biological and cultural elements.
  33. how does language define men and women differently?
    • the power of language 
    • the value of function of language
    • the attention function of language
  34. what is the foundation of humor?
    contrasting incongruous realities
  35. to get "humor" the audience must understand?
    the two realities involved well enough to appreciate their difference
  36. humor is often a sign of what?
    real conflict in situation where one or both parties choose not to bring the conflict out in the open
  37. humor provides a way to do what?
    to express an opinion without being serious, and humor relieves tension in uncomfortable situations
  38. humor deals with what?
    topics that lend themselves to double meanings or controversy
Card Set
Sociology Chapter 4
Sociology Chapter 4: Social Interaction in Everyday Life
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