Psych Test 2

  1. Head Sparing
    Biological mechanism that protects the brain when malnutrition affects body growth. The brain is last part of body to be damaged by malnutrition
  2. Pruning
    Unused connections in the brain atrophy and die
  3. Experience-expectant brain functions
    Functions that require certain basic common experiences in order to develop normally
  4. Experience- dependent brain functions
    Functions that depend on particular experiences that may/may not develop in particular infant
  5. Plantar reflex
    Push middle toe, baby clamps foot
  6. Babinski reflex
    Separates toes
  7. Swimming reflex
    Baby on its tummy will "swim" in crawl like way
  8. Moro reflex
    Once "fake" dropped or swooped, baby will instantly try to grab something with their feet/hands
  9. Habituate
    Continuous stimulus will make baby block out the stimulus (ex: falling asleep and being able to sleep through particular stimulus)
  10. Signs of Over Stimulation
    • -the universal stop sign for NO
    • -tongue thrust-spits put pacifier, just place finger in their mouth to help them get back into rhythm then (give pacifier)
    • - hiccups (give them pacifier)
    • -gaze aversion- (give pacifier)
    • -habituated- puts themselves to sleep
  11. Way to Calm a Baby or 5 S's
    • Swaddle
    • Suck
    • Sidelying
    • Shush
    • Sway
  12. Phases of Crying
    • A: Expiration
    • B: Inspiration
    • C: Rest
  13. States of development
    • 1.) deep sleep
    • 2.) light sleep
    • 3.) drowsy
    • 4.) Alert- Attentive
    • 5.) Alert- Active squirming
    • 6.) Alert- Crying
  14. Slow brain development
    • -decreased weight gain
    • -funny sounding cry
    • -trouble transitioning between developmental states
    • -unable to self soothe
    • -abnormal reflexes
  15. Infants born 'perm' have the most brain neurons than any other life stage

    Define :Synaptogenesis
    Within the first 3 years of life, brain makes continuous connections
  16. Myelination
    Speeds transition of impulses, makes brain speed faster

    • @ age 6- 90% brain myelination
    • @ age 25- full
  17. Left side of brain controls
    • Language
    • Logical problem solving
    • Detailed analysis
  18. Right side of brain
    • Visual/spatial
    • math
    • creative
    • Gestalt, sees entire picture
  19. Physiological flexion
    The fetal position is default
  20. T Braselton Test
    • Looks @ physiological flexion
    • Checks sensory abilities
    • How long to self sooth/ parental intervention
  21. Shaken baby syndrome
    Life threatening injury that occurs when infant is forcefully shaken back and forth
  22. Intrinsic motivation
    Reason to pursue a goal that comes from inside a person

    Example: imaginary friend dialogue, toy dialogue
  23. Extrinsic motivation
    Reason to pursue a goal that arises from the need to have ones achievements be awarded from outside
  24. externalizing problems
    Turning ones emotional distress outward in outbursts physical or verbal.
  25. Internalizing problems
    Turning ones emotional distress inward
  26. What does the prefrontal cortex of the brain regulate?
    Limbic system, emotions.
  27. Mildred Parties five kinds of PLAY
    • 1. Solitary Play
    • 2. Onlooker Play
    • 3. Parallel Play
    • 4. Associative Play
    • 5. Cooperative Play
  28. Solitary Play
    A child plays alone, unaware of any other children playing nearby
  29. Onlooker Play
    A child watches other children play
  30. Parallel Play
    (seen around 2 years of age) Children play with similar toys but not together
  31. Associative Play
    (around 3yrs), Children interact, observing one another and sharing material, but their play is not mutual
  32. Cooperative play
    (4 years), Play together, creating dramas or taking turns.
  33. Explain Mary Ainsworth "The Strange Situation" Lab Test that proved Stranger Wariness
    She tested that baby used parents as a 'secure base' when playing. If baby would check if the mom was ok with something, they were positive for stranger wariness and healthy.
  34. Bowlbys three stages of attachment
    • 1. Indiscriminate attachment (birth-6wks)
    • 2. Focusing on Familiar attachment (6wks-6mos)
    • 3. Active Proximity seeking attachment (6mos-24mos)
  35. Three Cognitive Progressions of PLAY
    • 1. Functional Play (sensorimotor) birth-2yrs
    •          -mouthing, throwing, cause/affect toys
    • 2. Constructive Play 2-6yrs
    •          - Goal oriented (to paint -> picture)
    •                                (build -> a tower)
    • 3. Make believe Play 3-6yrs
    •           - Playing 'HOUSE' etc.
    •          -
  36. 3 Categories of temperament, developed by Thomas & Chess
    • 1. Easy
    • 2. Difficult
    • 3. Slow to warmup
  37. Easy Child Temperament
    • Adapts easily
    • Positive mood
    • Mild reaction
    • Approachable
    • High in regularity
  38. Difficult Child Temperament
    • Doesn't like change
    • Low adaptability
    • Intense emotions
    • Very irregular
    • grumpy
  39. Slow to warm up child temperament
    • Reaction to withdraw
    • Regular habits
    • Mild reaction
    • With patience, they react like easy child
    • If pressured, they react like difficult child
  40. 9 Temperament Characteristics
    • 1 Activity
    • 2 Vhymizity
    • 3
  41. For full term babies, how much of their sleep cycle is REM sleep?
    Half of full term babies' sleep is REM sleep
  42. What is transient exuberance?
    Temporary increase in dendrites in the brain within first two years.
  43. What does a loss of dendrites do?
    Increases brain power
  44. What four things harm infant brains?
    • 1. Lack of Stimulation
    • 2. Shaken baby syndrome
    • 3. Severe social deprivation
    • 4. Stress
  45. What is a sensation?
    A response of a sensory system
  46. What is perception?
    It is the mental processing of sensory information when the brain interprets a sensation
  47. What is binocular vision?
    The ability to focus two eyes to see one image
  48. What are infants able to use binocular vision?
    At 14 weeks
  49. What is one example of gross motor skill in an infant?
    Crawling by 5 months
  50. What is herd immunity?
    A vaccinated child stops the spread of the disease, thus protecting others
  51. What are two problems with immunization?
    • 1. Unnoticed continuous fever or irritability
    • 2. Still no immunization for more severe diseases such as AIDS
  52. What are the positives to breast-feeding?
    • 1. Colostrum
    • 2. Helps involution process
    • 3. High in iron and vitamins
    • 4. Milk is already body temperature
    • 5. Baby is sick less often
    • 6. Less likely to become obese
    • 7. Less likely to suffer from diabetes
    • 8. Decrease risk of allergies and heart disease
  53. What is Colostrum?
    High-calorie fluid in breast milk
  54. When is colostrum produced?
    at 3 days
  55. What are the negatives of breast feeding?
    • 1. Gassy foods can be passed through milk
    • 2. Certain drugs
    • 3. The time commitment to pump
  56. What is the normal weight for a baby?
    7.5 lbs
  57. What are latrogenic effects?
    birth defects caused by medical interventions
  58. How much does an infant grow during the first year?
    1 inch per month (1 foot for the year)
  59. What is pre-term?
    baby born before 37 weeks
  60. What happens at 34 weeks?
    The frontal lobe is 25% smaller
  61. Who is Jean Piaget?
    I have no idea but she is in chapter 5
  62. What is cognitive theory?
    Human development focuses on changes in how people think over time. Thinking is limited to what they can see, hear, touch, and experience.
  63. What is the cognitive equilibrium?
    In cognitive theory, a state of mental balance where people are not confused because they can use their existing thought processes to understand current experiences and ideas
  64. What is assimilation?
    The reinterpretation of new experiences to fit into old ideas.
  65. What is accommodation?
    The restructuring of old ideas to include new experiences
  66. What are Jean Piaget's four stages of cognitive development?
    • 1. Sensorimotor
    • 2. Pre-operational
    • 3. Concrete operational
    • 4. Formal operational
  67. What is sensorimotor and at what ages is it developed?
    Developed from birth to 2 years old. Infant knows the world only through senses
  68. What is pre-operational and what years is it developed?
    Developed years 2 through 6. Interprets world through language and mental imagery. Develops Symbolic Thought
  69. What is concrete operational and what years is it developed?
    years 6 through 11. Individual learns to understand and apply logical operations of principles. Thinking is limited to what they can see, hear, touch, and experiences.
  70. What is formal operational and when is it developed?
    Year 12 to adulthood. Think about abstractions and hypothetical concepts. They reason analytically not just emotionally and can be logical about things they never experienced.
  71. Infants born "PERM" have what?
    The most brain neurons than any other life stage
  72. What is synaptogenesis?
    Period where the brain needs to make continuous connections. First 3 years of life.
  73. What is symbolic thought?
    • 1. Centration: focus on one aspect (lions are not cats, fathers are not brothers)
    • 2. Egocentric thinking: type of centration: can't take another persons perspective
    • 3. Irreversibility: something can't be undone
    • 4. Animism: human characteristics to toys
  74. What are the types of crying?
    • 1. Expiration
    • 2. Inspiration
    • 3. Rest
  75. Signs of slow brain development
    • 1. decreased weight gain
    • 2. funny sounding cry
    • 3. trouble transitioning between development stages
    • 4. unable to self-soothe
    • 5. abnormal reflexes
  76. What is physiological flexion?
    baby defaults to "fetal" position
  77. T. Brazelton Birth Test
    • 1. Looks for physiological flexion
    • 2. Checks sensory abilities
    • 3. How long it takes for baby to self-soothe w/o parental intervention
  78. What are the 5 S's to calm a baby?
    • 1. Swaddle
    • 2. Suck pacifier
    • 3. Sidelying
    • 4. Shush
    • 5. Sway
  79. What are the signs of over-stimulation?
    • 1. Hiccups
    • 2. gaze aversion
    • 3. Tongue trust
    • 4. Habituate
  80. Cephalo Caudal development
    acquires control in motor development
  81. What is the zone of proximal development?
    providing child with minimal amount of assistance needed for their development level
  82. "Apprentice of thinking"
    • 1. develops private speech
    • 2. "dance" metaphor. parents and children teach each other.
  83. What is assistance?
    Hand over hand or moral support/praisal teaching cognitive organzation.

    • 1. clarify
    • 2. organize
    • 3. problem-solve
    • 4. internalize
  84. Two type of Language Theories
    • 1. Learning Theory
    • 2. Noam Chomsky Theory
  85. Learning Theory? (language)
    • 1. Reinforcement/praisal
    • 2. Imitation
    • 3. over extending: over apply certain language rule
  86. Noam Chomsky Theory? (language)
    • 1. Innate-deep structure
    • 2. Learning surface structure
    • 3. Biological brain process
  87. Milestones of Language?
    • 1. Crying (birth-1-6 months) ... Cooing, squealing, raspberries
    • 2. Babbling (3-10 months) ... vowel sounds, consonants into vowels
    • 3. First word (10-14 months) ... single words interpreted into longer phrases
    • 4. Know 50 words (18 months)
    • 5. Know 900 words (24 months)
Card Set
Psych Test 2
Psych Test 2