Biological mechanism that protects the brain when malnutrition affects body growth. The brain is last part of body to be damaged by malnutrition
Unused connections in the brain atrophy and die
Experience-expectant brain functions
Functions that require certain basic common experiences in order to develop normally
Experience- dependent brain functions
Functions that depend on particular experiences that may/may not develop in particular infant
Push middle toe, baby clamps foot
Baby on its tummy will "swim" in crawl like way
Once "fake" dropped or swooped, baby will instantly try to grab something with their feet/hands
Continuous stimulus will make baby block out the stimulus (ex: falling asleep and being able to sleep through particular stimulus)
Signs of Over Stimulation
- -the universal stop sign for NO
- -tongue thrust-spits put pacifier, just place finger in their mouth to help them get back into rhythm then (give pacifier)
- - hiccups (give them pacifier)
- -gaze aversion- (give pacifier)
- -habituated- puts themselves to sleep
Way to Calm a Baby or 5 S's
Phases of Crying
- A: Expiration
- B: Inspiration
- C: Rest
States of development
- 1.) deep sleep
- 2.) light sleep
- 3.) drowsy
- 4.) Alert- Attentive
- 5.) Alert- Active squirming
- 6.) Alert- Crying
Slow brain development
- -decreased weight gain
- -funny sounding cry
- -trouble transitioning between developmental states
- -unable to self soothe
- -abnormal reflexes
Infants born 'perm' have the most brain neurons than any other life stage
Within the first 3 years of life, brain makes continuous connections
Speeds transition of impulses, makes brain speed faster
- @ age 6- 90% brain myelination
- @ age 25- full
Left side of brain controls
- Logical problem solving
- Detailed analysis
Right side of brain
- Gestalt, sees entire picture
The fetal position is default
T Braselton Test
- Looks @ physiological flexion
- Checks sensory abilities
- How long to self sooth/ parental intervention
Shaken baby syndrome
Life threatening injury that occurs when infant is forcefully shaken back and forth
Reason to pursue a goal that comes from inside a person
Example: imaginary friend dialogue, toy dialogue
Reason to pursue a goal that arises from the need to have ones achievements be awarded from outside
Turning ones emotional distress outward in outbursts physical or verbal.
Turning ones emotional distress inward
What does the prefrontal cortex of the brain regulate?
Limbic system, emotions.
Mildred Parties five kinds of PLAY
- 1. Solitary Play
- 2. Onlooker Play
- 3. Parallel Play
- 4. Associative Play
- 5. Cooperative Play
A child plays alone, unaware of any other children playing nearby
A child watches other children play
(seen around 2 years of age) Children play with similar toys but not together
(around 3yrs), Children interact, observing one another and sharing material, but their play is not mutual
(4 years), Play together, creating dramas or taking turns.
Explain Mary Ainsworth "The Strange Situation" Lab Test that proved Stranger Wariness
She tested that baby used parents as a 'secure base' when playing. If baby would check if the mom was ok with something, they were positive for stranger wariness and healthy.
Bowlbys three stages of attachment
- 1. Indiscriminate attachment (birth-6wks)
- 2. Focusing on Familiar attachment (6wks-6mos)
- 3. Active Proximity seeking attachment (6mos-24mos)
Three Cognitive Progressions of PLAY
- 1. Functional Play (sensorimotor) birth-2yrs
- -mouthing, throwing, cause/affect toys
- 2. Constructive Play 2-6yrs
- - Goal oriented (to paint -> picture)
- (build -> a tower)
- 3. Make believe Play 3-6yrs
- - Playing 'HOUSE' etc.
3 Categories of temperament, developed by Thomas & Chess
- 1. Easy
- 2. Difficult
- 3. Slow to warmup
Easy Child Temperament
- Adapts easily
- Positive mood
- Mild reaction
- High in regularity
Difficult Child Temperament
- Doesn't like change
- Low adaptability
- Intense emotions
- Very irregular
Slow to warm up child temperament
- Reaction to withdraw
- Regular habits
- Mild reaction
- With patience, they react like easy child
- If pressured, they react like difficult child
9 Temperament Characteristics
For full term babies, how much of their sleep cycle is REM sleep?
Half of full term babies' sleep is REM sleep
What is transient exuberance?
Temporary increase in dendrites in the brain within first two years.
What does a loss of dendrites do?
Increases brain power
What four things harm infant brains?
- 1. Lack of Stimulation
- 2. Shaken baby syndrome
- 3. Severe social deprivation
- 4. Stress
What is a sensation?
A response of a sensory system
What is perception?
It is the mental processing of sensory information when the brain interprets a sensation
What is binocular vision?
The ability to focus two eyes to see one image
What are infants able to use binocular vision?
At 14 weeks
What is one example of gross motor skill in an infant?
Crawling by 5 months
What is herd immunity?
A vaccinated child stops the spread of the disease, thus protecting others
What are two problems with immunization?
- 1. Unnoticed continuous fever or irritability
- 2. Still no immunization for more severe diseases such as AIDS
What are the positives to breast-feeding?
- 1. Colostrum
- 2. Helps involution process
- 3. High in iron and vitamins
- 4. Milk is already body temperature
- 5. Baby is sick less often
- 6. Less likely to become obese
- 7. Less likely to suffer from diabetes
- 8. Decrease risk of allergies and heart disease
What is Colostrum?
High-calorie fluid in breast milk
When is colostrum produced?
at 3 days
What are the negatives of breast feeding?
- 1. Gassy foods can be passed through milk
- 2. Certain drugs
- 3. The time commitment to pump
What is the normal weight for a baby?
What are latrogenic effects?
birth defects caused by medical interventions
How much does an infant grow during the first year?
1 inch per month (1 foot for the year)
What is pre-term?
baby born before 37 weeks
What happens at 34 weeks?
The frontal lobe is 25% smaller
Who is Jean Piaget?
I have no idea but she is in chapter 5
What is cognitive theory?
Human development focuses on changes in how people think over time. Thinking is limited to what they can see, hear, touch, and experience.
What is the cognitive equilibrium?
In cognitive theory, a state of mental balance where people are not confused because they can use their existing thought processes to understand current experiences and ideas
What is assimilation?
The reinterpretation of new experiences to fit into old ideas.
What is accommodation?
The restructuring of old ideas to include new experiences
What are Jean Piaget's four stages of cognitive development?
- 1. Sensorimotor
- 2. Pre-operational
- 3. Concrete operational
- 4. Formal operational
What is sensorimotor and at what ages is it developed?
Developed from birth to 2 years old. Infant knows the world only through senses
What is pre-operational and what years is it developed?
Developed years 2 through 6. Interprets world through language and mental imagery. Develops Symbolic Thought
What is concrete operational and what years is it developed?
years 6 through 11. Individual learns to understand and apply logical operations of principles. Thinking is limited to what they can see, hear, touch, and experiences.
What is formal operational and when is it developed?
Year 12 to adulthood. Think about abstractions and hypothetical concepts. They reason analytically not just emotionally and can be logical about things they never experienced.
Infants born "PERM" have what?
The most brain neurons than any other life stage
What is synaptogenesis?
Period where the brain needs to make continuous connections. First 3 years of life.
What is symbolic thought?
- 1. Centration: focus on one aspect (lions are not cats, fathers are not brothers)
- 2. Egocentric thinking: type of centration: can't take another persons perspective
- 3. Irreversibility: something can't be undone
- 4. Animism: human characteristics to toys
What are the types of crying?
- 1. Expiration
- 2. Inspiration
- 3. Rest
Signs of slow brain development
- 1. decreased weight gain
- 2. funny sounding cry
- 3. trouble transitioning between development stages
- 4. unable to self-soothe
- 5. abnormal reflexes
What is physiological flexion?
baby defaults to "fetal" position
T. Brazelton Birth Test
- 1. Looks for physiological flexion
- 2. Checks sensory abilities
- 3. How long it takes for baby to self-soothe w/o parental intervention
What are the 5 S's to calm a baby?
- 1. Swaddle
- 2. Suck pacifier
- 3. Sidelying
- 4. Shush
- 5. Sway
What are the signs of over-stimulation?
- 1. Hiccups
- 2. gaze aversion
- 3. Tongue trust
- 4. Habituate
Cephalo Caudal development
acquires control in motor development
What is the zone of proximal development?
providing child with minimal amount of assistance needed for their development level
"Apprentice of thinking"
- 1. develops private speech
- 2. "dance" metaphor. parents and children teach each other.
What is assistance?
Hand over hand or moral support/praisal teaching cognitive organzation.
- 1. clarify
- 2. organize
- 3. problem-solve
- 4. internalize
Two type of Language Theories
- 1. Learning Theory
- 2. Noam Chomsky Theory
Learning Theory? (language)
- 1. Reinforcement/praisal
- 2. Imitation
- 3. over extending: over apply certain language rule
Noam Chomsky Theory? (language)
- 1. Innate-deep structure
- 2. Learning surface structure
- 3. Biological brain process
Milestones of Language?
- 1. Crying (birth-1-6 months) ... Cooing, squealing, raspberries
- 2. Babbling (3-10 months) ... vowel sounds, consonants into vowels
- 3. First word (10-14 months) ... single words interpreted into longer phrases
- 4. Know 50 words (18 months)
- 5. Know 900 words (24 months)