Vocab Exam 3 - TEEX Paramedic FT

  1. 6 P's of musculoskeletal assessment
    Pain, Paralysis, Parasthesias, Pulselessness, Pallor, and Pressure.
  2. Abscess
    A collection of pus in a sac, formed by necrotic tissues and an accumulation of white blood cells.
  3. Aberrant conduction
    The abnormal conduction of the electrical impulse through the heart.
  4. Absolute refractory period
    The early phase of cardiac repolarization, wherein the heart muscle cannot be stimulated to depolarize.
  5. Acute coronary syndrome
    Term used to describe an group of clinical symptoms consistent with acute myocardial ischemia.
  6. Alveolar ridges
    The ridges between the teeth, which are covered with thickened connective tissue and epithelium.
  7. Angina pectoris
    The sudden pain from myocardial ischemia, caused by diminished circulation to the cardiac muscle. The pain is usually substernal and often radiates to the arms, jaw, or abdomen and usually lasts 3 to 5 minutes and disappears with rest.
  8. Angioedema
    An allergic reaction that may cause profound swelling of the tongue and lips.
  9. Angle of Louis
    Prominence on the sternum that lies opposite the second intercostal space.
  10. Anisocoria
    A condition in which the pupils are not equal of size.
  11. Anterior cord syndrome
    A condition that occurs with flexion injuries or fractures resulting in the displacement of bony fragments into the anterior portion of the spinal cord; findings include paralysis below the level of the insult and loss of pain, temperature, and touch sensation.
  12. Anterograde (posttraumatic) amnesia
    Loss of memory relating to events that occured after the injury.
  13. Arachnoid
    The middle membrane of the three meninges that enclose the brain and spinal cord.
  14. Arteriosclerosis
    A pathologic condition in which the arterial walls become thickened and inelastic.
  15. Arthritis
    Joint inflammation that causes pain, swelling, stiffness, and decreased range of motion.
  16. Atelectasis
    Alveolar collapse that prevents use of the portion of the lung for ventilation and oxygenation.
  17. Atherosclerosis
    A disorder in which cholesterol and calcium build up inside the walls of the blood vessels, forming plaque, which eventually leads to partial or complete blockage of blood flow.
  18. Automaticity
    Spontaneous initiation of depolarizing electrical impulses by pacemaker sites within the electric conduction system of the heart.
  19. Babinski reflex
    When the toe(s) moves upward in response to stimulation to the sole of the foot. Under normal circumstances, the toe(s) move downward.
  20. Battle's sign
    Bruising over the mastoid bone behind the ear commonly seen following a basilar skull fracture; also called retroauricular ecchymosis.
  21. Bigeminy
    An arrhythmia in which every other heartbeat is a premature contration.
  22. Blunt trauma
    Injury resulting from compression or deceleration forces, potentially crushing an organ or causing it to rupture.
  23. Botulism
    Poisoning from eating food containing botulinum toxin.
  24. Bowing fracture
    An incomplete fracture typically occuring in children in which the bone becomes bent as the result of compressive force.
  25. Brain stem
    The area of the brain between the spinal cord and cerebrum, surounded by the crebellum; controls functions that are necessary for life, such as respirations.
  26. Brown-Sequard syndrome
    A condtion associated with penetrating trauma with hemisection of the spinal cord and complete damage to all spinal tracts on the involved sides.
  27. Buckle fracture
    A common incomplete fracture in children in which the cortex of the bone fractures from an excessive compression force.
  28. Bundle branch block
    A disturbance in electric conduction through the right or left bundle branch from the bundle of His.
  29. Bundle of His
    The portion of the electric conduction system in the interventricular septum that conducts the depolarizing impulse from the atrioventricular junction to the right and left bundle branches.
  30. Bursitis
    Inflammation of a bursa.
  31. Cape cyanosis
    Deep cyanosis of the face and neck and across the chest and back; associated with little or no blood flow; it is particularly ominous.
  32. Cardiac output
    Amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute, calculated by multiplying the stroke volume by the heart rate per minute.
  33. Cardioversion
    The use of a synchronized direct current (DC) electric shock to convert tachyarrhythmias (such as atrial flutter) to normal sinus rhythm.
  34. Carpopedal spasm
    Contorted position of the hand in which the fingers flex in a clawlike attitude and the thumb curls toward the palm.
  35. Central cord syndrome
    A condition resulting from hyperextension injuries to the cervical area that cause damage with hemorrhage or edema to the cetral cervical segments; findings include greater loss of function in the upper extremities with variable sensory loss of pain and temperature.
  36. Central nervous system
    The system comtaining the brain and spinal cord.
  37. Central neurogenic hyperventilation
    Deep, rapid respirations; similar to Kussmaul, but without an acetone breath odor; commonly seen following brain stem injury.
  38. Cerebral concussion
    Occurs when the brain is jarred around in the skull; a mild diffuse brain injury that does not result in structural damage or permanent neurologic impairment.
  39. Cerebral contusion
    A focal brain injury in which brain tissue is bruised and damaged in a defined area.
  40. Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP)
    The pressure of blood flow through the brain; the difference between the mean arterial pressure (MAP) and intracranial pressure (ICP).
  41. Chordae tendineae
    Fibrous strands shaped like umbrella stays that attach the free edges of the leaflets, pr cusps, of the atrioventricular valves to the papillary muscles.
  42. Chronotropic effect
    The rate of contraction of the heart.
  43. Closed abdominal injury
    An injury in which there is soft-tissue damage inside the body, but the skin remains intact.
  44. Collateral circulation
    The mesh of arteries and capillaries that furnishes blood to a segment of tissue whose original arterial supply has been obstructed.
  45. Comminuted fracture
    A fracture in which the bone is broken into three or more pieces.
  46. Commotio cordis
    An event in which an often fatal cardiac dysrhythmia is produced by a sudden blow to the thoracic cavity.
  47. Contractility
    The strength of heart muscle contractions.
  48. Cor pulmonale
    Heart disease that develops secondary to a chronic lung disease, usually affecting primarily the right side of the heart.
  49. Coup-contrecoup injury
    Dual impacting of the brain into the skull; coup injury occurs at the point of impact; contrecoup injury occurs at the opposite side of imact, as the brain rebounds.
  50. Crepitus
    A grating sensation made when two pieces of broken bone are rubbed together or subcutaneous emphysema is palpated.
  51. Critical minimum threshold
    Minimum cerebral perfusion pressure required to adequately perfuse the brain; 60 mm Hg in the adult.
  52. Croup
    A childhood viral disease characterized by edema of the upper airways with barking cough, difficult breathing, and stridor.
  53. Cushing's triad
    Hypertension (with a widening pulse pressure), bradycardia, and irregular respirations; classic trio of findings associated with increased ICP.
  54. Decerebrate (extensor) posturing
    Abnormal posture characterized by extension of the arms and legs; indicates pressure on the brain stem.
  55. Decorticate (flexor) posturing
    Abnormal posture characterized by flexion of the arms and extension of the legs; indicates pressure on the brain stem.
  56. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
    The formation of a blood clot within the larger veins of an extremity, typically following a period of prolonged immobilization.
  57. Dentin
    The principal mass of the tooth, which is made up of a material that is much more dense and stronger than bone.
  58. Dermatones
    Distinct areas of skin that correspond to specific spinal or cranial nerve levels where sensory nerves enter the CNS.
  59. Diaphragm
    Large skeletal muscle that plays a major role in breathing and separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity.
  60. Diffuse brain injury
    Any injury that affects the entire brain.
  61. Distraction injury
    An injury that results from a force that tries to increase the length of a body part or seperate one body part from another.
  62. Dromotropic effect
    The effect on the velocity of conduction.
  63. Duodenum
    The first part of the small intestine.
  64. Electrical alternans
    An ECG pattern in which the QRS vector changes with each heart beat. This pattern is pathognomonic for cardiac tamponade.
  65. Emphysema
    Infiltration of any tissue by air or gas; a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by distention of the alveoli and destructive changes in the lung parenchyma.
  66. Evisceration
    Displacement of an organ outside the body.
  67. Exopthalmos
    Protrusion of the eyes from the normal position within the socket.
  68. Fatigue fractures
    Fractures that result from multiple compressive loads.
  69. First-degree heart block
    A partial disruption of the conduction of the depolarizing impulse from the atria to the ventricles, causing prolongation of the P-R interval.
  70. Flail chest
    An injury that involves two or more adjacent ribs fractured in two or more places, allowing the segment between the fractures to move independently of the rest of the thoracic cage.
  71. Greenstick fracture
    A type of fracture occurring most frequently in children in which there is incomplete breakage of the bone.
  72. Guillain-Barré syndrome
    A disease of unknown etiology that causes paralysis that progresses from the feet to the head (ascending paralysis). If the paralysis reaches the diaphragm, the patient may require respiratory support.
  73. Hemoperitoneum
    The presence of extravasated blood in the peritoneal cavity.
  74. Hemopneumothorax
    A collection of blood and air in the bleural cavity.
  75. Hering-Breuer reflex
    The nervous system mechanism that terminates inhalation and prevents lung overexpansion.
  76. Herniation
    Process in which tissue is forced out of its normal position, such as when the brain is forced from the cranial vault, either through the foramen magnum or over the tentorium.
  77. Impacted fracture
    A broken bone in which the end of one bone becomes wedged into another bone, as could be the case in a fall from a significant height.
  78. Incomplete spinal cord injury
    Spinal cord injury in which there is some degree of cordmediated function; initial dysfunction may be temporary and there may be potential for recovery.
  79. Intracerebral hematoma
    Bleeding within the brain tissue (parenchyma) itself; also referred to as an intraparenchymal hematoma.
  80. Isoelectric line
    The baseline of the ECG.
  81. Kehr's sign
    Left shoulder pain that may indicate a ruptured spleen.
  82. Kussmaul respirations
    Deep, gasping respirations; common in diabetic coma (ketoacidosis).
  83. Le Fort fractures
    Maxillary fractures that are classified into three categories based on their anatomic location.
  84. Mean arterial pressure (MAP)
    The average (or mean) pressure against the arterial wall during a cardiac cycle.
  85. Mesentery
    A membranous duble fold of tissue in the abdomen that attaches various organs to the body wall.
  86. Monomorphic
    Having only one common shape.
  87. Myotomes
    Regions of the body innervated by the motor components of spinal nerves.
  88. Nursemaid's elbow
    The subluxation of the radial head that often results from pulling on an outstretched arm.
  89. Oblique fracture
    A fracture that travels diagonally from one side of the bone to the other.
  90. Open abdominal injury
    An injury in which there is a break in the surface of the skin or mucous membrane, exposing deeper tissue to potential contamination.
  91. Open book pelvic fracture
    A life-threatening fracture of the pelvis caused by a force that displaces one or both sides of the pelvis laterally and posteriorly.
  92. Open pneumothorax
    The result of a defect in the chest wall that allows air to enter the thoracic space.
  93. Osteoporosis
    A condition characterized by decreased bone mass and density and increased suspectibility to fractures.
  94. Pacemaker
    The specialized tissue within the heart that initiates excitation impulses; an electronic device used to stimulate cardiac contraction when the electric conduction system of the heart is malfunctioning, especially in complete heart block. An electronic pacemaker consists of a battery-powered pulse generator and a wire taht transmits the electric impulse to the ventricles.
  95. Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
    Severe shortness of breath occurring at night after several hours of recumbency, during which fluid pools in the lungs; the person is forced to sit up to breathe. PND is caused by left heart failure or decompensation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
  96. Pathologic fracture
    A fracture that occurs in an area of abnormally weakened bone.
  97. Penetrating trauma
    Injury caused by objects that pierce the surface of the body, such as knives and bullets, and damage internal tissues and organs.
  98. Pericardial sac
    The potential space between the layers of the pericardium.
  99. Pericardial tamponade
    Impairment of a diastolic filling of the right ventricle due to significant amounts of fluid in the pericardial sac surrounding the heart, leading to a decrease in the cardiac output.
  100. Pericardiocentesis
    A procedure in which a needle or angiocath is introduced into the pericardial sac to relieve cardiac tamponade.
  101. Pericardium
    the double-layered sac containing the heart and the origins of the superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and pulmonary artery.
  102. Periorbital ecchymosis
    Bruising under or around the orbits that is commonly seen following a basilar skull fracture; also called racoon eyes.
  103. Peritoneum
    A membrane in the abdomen encasing the liver, spleen, diaphragm, stomach, and transverse colon.
  104. Peritonitis
    Inflamation of the peritoneum (the lining around the abdominal cavity) that results from either blood or hollow organ contents spilling into the abdominal cavity.
  105. Periumbilical
    Pertaining to the area around the umbilicus (the navel).
  106. Phlebotomy
    The withdrawal of blood from a vein.
  107. Pleura
    Membrane lining the outer surface of the lungs (visceral pleura), the inner surface of the chest wall, and the thoracic surface of the diaphragm (parietal pleura).
  108. Point of maximal impulse (PMI)
    The palpable beat of the apex of the heart against the chest wall during ventricular contraction; normally palpated in the fifth left intercostal space in the midclavicular line.
  109. Polycythemia
    An overabundance of production of RBCs, WBCs, and platelets, which makes the blood thick.
  110. Posterior cord syndrome
    A condition associated with extension injuries with isolated injury to the dorsal column; presents as decreased sensation to light touch, proprioception, and vibration while leaving most other motor and sensory functions intact.
  111. P-R interval
    The period between the beginning of the P wave (atrial depolarization) and the onset of the QRS complex (ventricular depolarization), signifying the time required for arterial depolarization and passage of the excitation impulse through the artrioventricular junction.
  112. Primary brain injury
    An injury to the brain and its associated structures that is a direct result of impact to the head.
  113. Pulmonary edema
    Congestion of the pulmonary air spaces with exudate and foam, often secondary to left heart failure.
  114. Pulsus paradoxus
    A drop in the systolic BP of 10 mm Hg or more; commonly seen in patients with pericardial tamponade or severe asthma.
  115. Pylorus
    A circumferential muscle at the end of the stomach that acts as a valve between the stomach and duodenum.
  116. Refractory period
    A short period immediately after depolarization in which the myocytes are not yet repolarized and are unable to fire or conduct and impulse.
  117. Relative refractory period
    That period in the cell-firing cycle at which it is possible but difficult to restimulate the cell to fire another impulse.
  118. Retrograde amnesia
    Loss of memory relating to events that occurred before the injury.
  119. Retroperitoneal space
    The area in the abdomen containing the aorta, vena cava, pancreas, kidneys, ureters, and portions of the duodenum and large intestine.
  120. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
    An inflammatory disorder that affects the entire body and leads to degeneration and deformation of joints.
  121. Rotation-flexion injury
    A type of injury typically resulting from high acceleration forces; can result in a stable unilateral facet dislocation in the cervical spine.
  122. Secondary spinal cord injury
    Injury to the spinal cord, thought to be the result of multiple factors that result in a progression of inflammatory responses from primary spinal cord injury.
  123. Sliver fork deformity
    The dorsal deformity of the forearm that results from a Colles fracture.
  124. Spinal cord
    The part of the central nervous system that extends downward from the brain through the foramen magnum and is protected by the spine.
  125. Spinal shock
    The temporary local neurologic condition that occurs immediately after spinal trauma; swelling and edema of the spinal cord begin immediately after injury, with severe pain and potential paralysis.
  126. ST segment
    The line from the end of the QRS complex to the beginning of the T wave (the beginning of which is referred to as the J-point).
  127. Stable angina
    Angina pectoric characterized by periodic pain with a predictable pattern.
  128. Status asthmaticus
    A severe, prolonged asthma attack that cannot be broken with epinephrine.
  129. Stress fracture
    A fracture that results from exaggerated stress on the bone caused by unusually rapid muscle development.
  130. Stroke volume
    the volume of blood pumped forward with each ventricular contraction.
  131. Subcutaneous emphysema
    A physical finding of air within the subcutaneous tissue.
  132. Subdural hematoma
    An accumulation of blood beneath the dura but outside the brain.
  133. Supracondylar fractures
    Fractures of the distal humerus that occur just proximal to the elbow.
  134. Surfactant
    A liquid protein substance that coats the alveoli in the lungs, decreases alveolar surface tension, and keeps the alveoli expanded; a low level in a a premature baby contributes to respiratory distress syndrome.
  135. Sympathetic nervous system
    Subdivision of the autonomic nervous system that governs the body's fight-or-flight reactions by inducing smooth muscle contraction or relaxation of hte blood vessels and bronchioles.
  136. Systemic circulation
    the flow of blood from the left ventricle through the aorta, to all of its branches and capillaries in the tissues, and back to the right atrium through the venules, veins, and venae cavae; also called the greater circulation.
  137. Tactile fermitus
    Vibrations in the chhest as the patient breathes.
  138. Thompson test
    Squeezing of the calf muscle to evaluate for plantar flexion of the foot to degermine whether the Achilles tendon is intact.
  139. Transverse spinous process
    The junction of each pedicle and lamina on each side of a vertebra; these project laterally and posteriorly and form points of attachment for muscles and ligaments.
  140. Traumatic asphyxia
    A pattern of injuries seen after a severe force is applied to the thorax, forcing blood from the great vessels and back into the head and neck.
  141. Traumatic brain injury (TBI)
    A traumatic insult to the brain capable of producing physical, intellectual, emotional, social, and vocational changes.
  142. Tuberculosis
    A chronic bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that usually affects the lungs but can also affect other organs such as the brain or kidneys; may be characterized by a persistent cough, night sweats, headache, weight loss, hemoptysis, or chest pain.
  143. Turbinates
    Three bony shelves that protrude from the lateral walls of the nasal cavity and extend into the nasal passageway, parallel to the nasal floor; serve to increase the surface area of the nasal mucosa, thereby improving the processes of warming, filtering, and humidification of inhaled air.
  144. Unstable angina
    Angina pectoris characterized by a changing, unpredictable pattern of pain, which may signal an impending acute myocardial infarction.
  145. Valsalva maneuver
    Forced exhalation against a closed glottis, the effect of which is to stimulate the vagus nerve and, thereby, slow the heart rate.
  146. Vertebral body
    Anterior weight-bearing structure in the spine made of cancellous bone and surrounded by a layer of hard, compact bone that provides support and stability.
  147. Vertical compression
    A type of injury typically resulting from a direct blow to the crown of the skull or rapid deceleration from a fall through the feet, legs, and pelvis, possibly causing a burst fracture or disk herniation.
  148. Volkmann ischemic contracture
    Deformity of the hand, fingers, and wrist resulting from damage to forearm muscles; develops from muscle ischemia and is associated with compartment syndrome.
  149. Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome
    A syndrome characterized by short R-R intervals, delta waves, nonspecific ST-T wave changes, and paroxysmal episodes of tachycardia caused by the presence of an accessory pathway.
  150. Xyphoid process
    An inferior segment of the sternum often used as a landmark for CPR.
Card Set
Vocab Exam 3 - TEEX Paramedic FT
Cards for TEEX Paramedic FT vocabulary exam 1, covering chapters 21-27 from AAOS Emergency Care in the Streets