we have a tendency to give causal explanations for
someone’s behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person’s
fundamental attribution error.
The tendency to overestimate the impact of personal
disposition and underestimate the impact of the situations in analyzing the
behaviors of others leads to fundamental attribution error.
Cognitive dissonance theory
When we become aware that our attitudes and actions
don’t coincide, we experience tension (cognitive dissonance); so we often bring
our attitudes into line with our actions to relieve this tension.
we can influece our attitudes and emotions by changing our behavior
adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
according to cognitive dissonace theory, people who conform to behavior of their peers that they really dont approve will likely...
begain to really apporve of it
Discuss Asch’s experiments on conformity, and distinguish between normative and informational social influence.
get fire or 7 students in teh room one perticipant and the rest are actors, they ask them to identify lines and the actors pick thw ovious wrong answer, the participant then picks the same answer as the actors
proved that they will go along with the group even if they dont believe in what the group is saying
conditions that strengthen conformity
1.One is made to feel incompetent or insecure.
2.The group has at least three people.
3.The group is unanimous.
4.One admires the group’s status and attractiveness.
5.On has no prior commitment to response.
6.The group observes one’s behavior.
7.One’s culture strongly encourages respect for social standard.
Describe Milgram’s experiments on obedience, and outline the conditions in which obedience was highest.
Stanley Milgram designed a study that investigated the effects of authority on obedience, what happend in the study they took people in a situation and told them they would be teacher or student every participant was picked to be a teacher, actors were students. they strapped students up and gave the teacher words to make the students memorize. and if the student gets it wrong they have to shock them
Obedience was highest when:
The person giving the orders was close at hand and was
perceived to be a legitimate authority figure
The authority figure was supported by a prestigious
institution (e.g., Yale University)
The victim was depersonalized—at a distance or in
There were no role models for defiance of the
Describe conditions in which the presence of others is likely to result in social facilitation, social loafing, or deindividuation.
cyclists’ race time were faster when they competed against others than against a clock. this biings back to arousel levels
so arousal due to the presence of others strengthens the most likely response
Refers to improved performance on a task in the presence of others
what is the differnce between Social Loafing and Social facilitation
Social faclilation is gonna take place in situation where your gonna shine on your own
and be reconized, social loafing is
when your art of a cround and feel liess indivudiually accountable
Tendency of an
individual in a group to exert less effort toward attaining a common goal than
when tested individually (Latané, 1981).
people in a group feel less individually
people in a group may view their contribution
Loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
Discuss the social factors that contribute to prejudice
Social Divisions (In- v. Out-group)
Whenpeople have money, power and prestige, and others do not, prejudice develops.
Social inequality increases prejudice.
the “haves” may develop attitudes that justify
the status quo
Explain how Scapegoating illustrates the emotional component of prejudice
Scapegoat Theory: Prejudice provides an outlet for anger [emotion] by providing someone to blame.
In experiments, people made to feel insecure will often restore self-esteem by disparaging others.
Cite four ways that cognitive processes help create and maintain prejudice.
categorize, but these heurisitics may ead to inaccurate assumptions (confirmation bias)
the Just-world phenomenon-this kind of realates to the rationlization thoery, where people try ot make sense of the world and put it in a rational box. - hind-signt bias is a good factor here
Explain how psychology’s definition of aggression differs from everyday usage.
Research shows that
aggressive behavior emerges from the interaction of biology
testosterone, lower frontal lobe inhibition) and
Outline four psychological triggers of
Aggression is Rewarding
•sexually aggressive attitudes increase after viewing
sexual aggressive movies.
of a goal can lead to aggression.
• Even environmental
temperature can lead to aggressive acts. Murders and rapes increased with
temperature in Houston.
Biopsychosocial Approach Diagram
Describe the steps in the decision-making
process involved in bystander intervention.
Describe the influence of proximity, physical
attractiveness, and similarity on interpersonal attractions.
nearness is a powerful predictor of friendship. Repeated exposure to novel
stimuli increases their attraction (
mere exposure effect).
2.Physical Attractiveness: Once
proximity affords contact the next most important thing in attraction is
similar views between individuals causes the bond of attraction to strengthen.
Discuss effective ways of encouraging peaceful
cooperation and reducing social conflict.
Superordinate Goals are
shared goals that override differences among people and require their