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Bentham pleasure vs pain
actions should be based off of pain and pleasure
causes pleasure - ought to do it
causes pain - ought not to do it.
The principle of utility
approves or disapproves of an action based on its tendancy to augment or diminish pleasure
Intensity - pain/pleasure 1-10 (force/vivid)
Duration - how long
Fecundity (fruitfulness) - will it produce more of the same?
Purity - mixed with opposite?
Extent - how many people affected
How to use characteristics
Mathematical and objective. Calculate this and then decide. If pleasurable
Not common good but a sum of individual goods
Why is it not egoism
Not egoism because its objective and intrinsic. Or rather where its coming from is
Pig vs human scenario
Pig has 1000 units of pleasure
Human has 950 units of pleasure
so according to bentham seems like you'd save the pig because of quantity of pleasure
2 principles adverse to utility
1. Principle of Asceticism
2. Principle of sympathy and antipathy
Principle of Ascenticism
right - decreases pleasure
wrong - increases pleasure
This principle is unnatural b/c you cannot will it for an extended time
Principle of Sympathy/Antipathy
Right if the person approves of it.
Wrong if the person disapproves of it
** Try to impose my preference on you.
Personal pleasure --> try to impose my preference on you
4 sources/sanctions of pleasure/pain
1. Physical Sensation
3. Moral Social Interpersonal Conflict
4. Religious - God
ethics bentham utilitarianism