chapter 15 class

  1. health psychology
    is concerned with understanding how biological, psychological, environmental and cultural factors are involved in physical health and illness
  2. stress response
    emotional state depends on our appraisal and perception of the situation
  3. daily hassles
    • small, everyday problems that accumulate to become a source of stress
    • micro-stressors: bad or rude drivers, cannot find keys or cell phone
  4. Social Readjustment Rating Scale
    • assigns life change units to various events that can occur in one's life
    • does not apply equally to all cultures or populations
    • high scores on the srrs are related to health problems
  5. The Tend and Befriend Response
    • some theorists argue that the fight or flight response may be a largely male response, and suggest that evolution may have selected a "tend and befriend" response to cope with stress in females
    • regardless of the mechanism, in general females are more likely to have extensive and well-maintained social networks than are males
  6. emotional responses to stress
    • in addition to bodily arousal, stress triggers emotions and changes mood
    • the greater the amount of stress, the more negative the emotions associated with stress: anxiety, fear, anger, depression
    • as stressors subside, mood becomes more positive
  7. cognitive responses to stress
    • appraisal is key in ability to handle stressful situations
    • richard lazarus: cognitive-mediational theory of emotion
    • primary appraisal: appraisal of stressor (how big a stressor it is)
    • secondary appraisal: appraisal of resources and one's ability to deal with stressor
  8. Perceived control
    • learned helplessness
    • predicability
    • if you perceive you can control the stress, you will feel less stress
    • ex. old people given more control over their lives more likely to alive later
  9. autonomic reactivity and stress
    • difference in intensity of autonomic nervous system (ANS) reaction
    • example - individuals consistently displayed either high or low cardiovascular activity in response to stress
  10. social support and stress
    • more social support seems to correlate with less stress
    • support may increase self-confidence in dealing with stressors
    • social feedback may alter one's perception of stressor
    • presence of others reduces bodily arousal and negative emotions
  11. hardy
    • personality and stress
    • stress-resistant personalities: welcome challenges, take control, view stressors as growth oppotunities
  12. coping
    • cognitive and behavioural strategies to manage stress
    • lashing out: psychological or physical
    • self-defence: defensive, avoidant behaviours to protect oneself from stress
    • self-indulgence: alcohol, drugs, overeating
  13. constructive coping strategies
    • problem-focused coping: efforts aimed at a stressor
    • emotion-focused coping: changing feelings about the stressor
  14. Stress and Health
    • strong relationship between stress and health
    • psychosomatic or psychophysiological
    • interaction between psychological and biological factors:
    • -coronary heart diseas
    • -psychological (e.G. Type A) and biological (e.g obesity)
    • Life change and illness:
    • - life stressors (srrs) linked to physical illness
  15. Type A personality and Hostility
    linked to coronary heart diseases
  16. Behavioural changes in response to stress
    • can affect the immune system
    • anxiety and/or depression may trigger other behavrious
    • examples: smoking, alcohol or drug use, sleep deprivation
    • these behaviours result in slowed immune system
  17. Hostility
    • a personality trait characterized by mistrust, an expectation of harm ad provocation by others, and a cynical attitude
    • - associated with heart disease
    • -gender differences
    • - anger management programs
  18. Problem focused coping straegies
    • active coping
    • planning
    • instrumental social support
    • suppression of competing activities
    • restraint coping
  19. Emotion focused coping strategies
    • emotional social support
    • venting emotions
    • positive reinterpretation
    • behavioural disengagement
    • mental disengagement
  20. effects of mind-body intervention
    • research results
    • improved mood and immune response
    • improved control of pain
    • decreased stress and emotional distress
    • fewer subsequent heart problems
    • placebo effects as mind-body interventions
  21. When is stress a good thing
    • Eustress: optimal stress level
    • promotes physical and psychological health
    • inoculation: dealing with small levels of stress to improve functioning in increasingly stressful situations
Card Set
chapter 15 class
class chapter 15 psyc