carpentry 1- cutters, bits and abrasives

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  1. when using a  hand plane what should be done to avoid cutting against the grain?
    reverse the tool or material
  2. describe 2 examples of using a chisel that would require cutting across the grain?
    • 1.clearing a dado
    • 2.cutting a hinge gain
  3. what is the first stage of creating the edge on a chisel or plane iron?
    to create a suitable bevel
  4. how does flat grinding differ from hollow grinding?
    • hollow- dome with rotating grinding wheel which creates a curvature
    • flat-abrasive belt or specialized flat wheel grinder creates a flat edge
  5. a wheel dresser is used to resurface the wheel on a grinder. why is this an advantage when sharpening tools?
    it is harp and clean so it cuts faster and with less heat to prevent retempering
  6. what safety precaution is a must when working with a grinder?
    eye protection is required and a face shield is recommended
  7. when is it advisable to regrind a plane iron or chisel?
    nicked, worn down, rounded
  8. what is normally the problem with the grinding wheels that come with new grinders?
    often hard and coarse for sharpening it is advisable to replace with a soft bond 80 or 120 grit aluminum oxide wheel
  9. what ratio of (length of bevel) to (thickness of steel) is required to achieve a bevel angle of 25 to 30 degrees?
    2 to 1 ratio of bevel to length of steel thickness creates 30 deg. slightly higher creates 25 deg.
  10. what is the maximum distance that the tool rest can be away from the grinding stone?
    no further than 3mm 1/8"
  11. list 2 categories of whetstones.
    • 1. oil stones and water stones
    • 2. natural and man made
  12. which type of whetstone can be used to sharpen carbide cutters?
    diamond impregnated stones
  13. what colour is a soft arkansas whetstone?
    white, grey black, pink, grey or any combination of these
  14. how is the actual cutting edge on a scraper created?
    burnished with a burnisher
  15. what are hand scrapers used for?
    final smoothing before final sanding
  16. sandpaper used by carpenters usually has what type of grit?
    garnet, aluminum oxide, and silicone carbide
  17. what is the correct sequence of sanding?
    • 60-150 to prepare wood for paint
    • 150-220 for wood to be varnished
  18. what are 2 classifications of sand paper?
    • closed coat
    • open coat
  19. what is closed coat sandpaper used for?
    for fine finishing and tends to clog easily
  20. what is open coat sandpaper used for?
    initial sanding when you need to remove a ot of material
  21. how can you achieve a smooth flat surface when using sandpaper?
    use a sanding block
  22. describe the teeth for a ripsaw and cuts for which the ripsaw is most effective.
    chisel shaped and best for with the grain
  23. describe the teeth of a crosscut saw and cuts for which a crosscut is most effective.
    knife shaped and cutting across the grain
  24. what is the gullet angle on a crosscut saw?
    it is always 60 deg. for both rip and crosscut
  25. what are the most common teeth configurations for circular saw blades?
    rip, crosscut, and combination
  26. how are the carbide tips attached to a circular saw blade?
    brazed or silver soldered
  27. what type of blade is used to cut plywood parallel to the long edge?
    cross cut and combination blades can cut plywood in any direction
  28. what is a gullet and what is its purpose?
    the space between the teeth that clears the wood chips
  29. list 2 types of dado sets.
    • 1. stacked
    • 2. adjustable
  30. can the outside cutter from a stacked dado set be used as an individual cutter?
    no they should always be used as a set
  31. why would a carpenter decrease the point angle twist drill to an angle of 60 deg.?
    allows the bit to enter cleaner and easier
  32. describe a brad point drill bit.
    is a twist bit with a point to prevent skating
  33. what is the difference between an auger bit designed for a power drill and an auger bit designed for a brace?
    the absence of the tang from the power bit
  34. briefly describe how to sharpen an auger bit.
    use a bit file to sharpen the spurs than the cutting edge
  35. describe a fly cutter.
    drill bit for drill press that can extend out to different radius to cut larger holes
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carpentry 1- cutters, bits and abrasives
carpentry 1- cutters, bits and abrasives
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