chapter 3 phonetic transcription and diacriticsq

The flashcards below were created by user jacwill on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. what is transcription
    • ipa is the notation system used to document speech and sound productions
    • transcription of porduction of what student or client says
    • allows assessor to determine what and where the errors are and will assist in developing a treatment plan
  2. what are the two types of transcription
    • broad transcription/phonemic transcription: general trans where each symbol represents a phoneme 
    •      -symbols are simply recorded with / /
    •      -the sound of what the client is saying
    • narrow transcription/ phonetic transcription: sound units are recorded with as much accuracy or production detail as possible and transcribed using []
    •      -production
  3. what are diacritics
    • marks added to sound transcription symbols to give them a particular phonetic value
    • symbols developed specifically to note deviant speech
    • assist us when reviewing trans in grouping errors and being able to explain them
  4. what kind of system is phonetic transcription
    • a descriptive system
    • should be used for the basis of assessment of actual articulatory/phonological impairments
  5. velarization
    • more posterior tongue placement in the direction of the velum also called the dark /l/
    • also when n occurs before k or g we get long, pink
  6. lateralization
    • air escapes over the sides of the tongue instead of anteriorally
    • lateral lisp of /s or z/
    • /zip=ʤip/
  7. diacritics used for tongue placement
    additonal trans marks added to sound symbols
  8. Diacritics used for tongue placement
    • is noted as [_] tip of the tongue against insided of upper incisors instead of alveolar ridge
    •      -[d] occurs often due to coarticualtion (width)
    •      -[n] in ninth
    •      -voiceless th as in thantaclauth
  9. Diacritics used for tongue placement
    • is marked with superscript j at hte right of the ipa symbol
    • it occurs whenthe articulators move int he direction of the palate to a more anterior placement (superscript j at the right of the ipa symbol
    • only used in sounds in which their articulation does not involve the palate, for ex dental or alveolar sounds
  10. voice symbols
    what are the two types
    • partial devoicing: of voiced consonants-changes from voiced to voiceless so from /z/ to /s/ in other words su for zoo
    •      -symbol is a small circle in parnethesis under the sound symbol (o)
    • partial voicing: when voiceless consonants become partially voiced /∫us/ for shoes.
  11. aspirated and nonaspirated stop plosives
    • indicated by elevated h (superscript) [phit] for Pete
    • normal aspriation remains unmarked in the sample
    • [=] is used in the aspirated stop-plosive is not aspirated [P=aj] for pie
    • the sudden release of the articulatory effort in fortis stop plosives
  12. what is fortis
    • more articulatory effort/energy
    • fortis stop plosives are aspirated while voiced
  13. what is lenis
    • less articulatory effort/energy
    • lenis stop plosives are unaspirated
  14. unreleased stop plosives
    • an unreleased stop or unreleased plosive is a plosive consonant without an audible release burst (modification of the sounds) catnip [ˈkæt̚nɪp]
    • the oral tract is blocked to pronounce the consonant, and there is no audible indication of when that occlusion ends
    • a right angle above the consonant letter
    • [p̚ ], [t̚ ], [k̚ ]
  15. syllabic consonants
    • sonorant consonants or semivowels which represent nuclei of syllables 
    •      -(button bʌˌtnˌ) 
    • unstressed syllables can become reduced syllables or they practically disappear (finshing becomes fishin
  16. labialization/nonlabialization of consonants
    • a normally unrounded consonant is produced with lip rounding (labialized)
    • [Sʷ up] for soup is labialized where the nonlip rounded /s/ is labialized or produced with rounded lips
  17. derhotacization
    • loss of r-coloring for the consonant /r/ and central vowels
    • a distortion (or inability to pronounce) the sound of letter r, causing the r to be omitted as a consonant or changing }/ɝ/ or /ɚ/ to /ɜ/,/ə/
    •      -}[wɛd] for [rɛd]; [lӕdə] for [lӕdɚ].
  18. diacritics used with vowels
    rounding and unrounding
    • rounding: occurs when vowels which are typically not rounded are produced with more lip rounding than is usual
    •      -backwards c means less rounding than normal /ɔ̹/
    • unrounded: is the opposite where vowels are produced with no rounding
    •      -trans with a c type notation open to hte right means less rounding than considered normal /c/
  19. Diacritics Used with Vowels
    raised tongue positon
    • where the tongue is somewhat raised, the t shaped arrow would point upward /˔/
    •       -an /æ/ would be changed to /∊/ while still being identified as /æ/
  20. Diacritics Used with Vowels
    lowered tongue
    • refers to a vowel which is produced with the tongue elevation somewhat lowered, int he direction of the next lowered vowel on the chart
    •      -a lowered /I/ would be trans as /I/ with a t shaped arrow pointing down /˕/
  21. Diacritics Used with Vowels
    advanced tongue positions
    • when the specific vowel production is somewhat frontalized, positioned more anterior in the mouth than normal
    •      -trans with a small /+/ under the vowel sign in question
  22. Diacritics Used with Vowels
    retracted tongue postions
    when the vowel production is somewhat further back in the mouth, the tongue is more posteriorly placed and a /-/ would be placed under the vowel symbol
  23. Diacritics Used with Vowels
    • when nasals follow a vowel, the vowel often becomes nasal (man, can't, or then)
    •       -for excessive nasaltiy˜ is placed above the sound
    •       -for denasality ~ with a slash through it
  24. Diacritics Used with Vowels
    stress markers
    • primary stress=the loudest syllable (supermarket)
    • secondary stress=the next loudest (signify)
  25. duration symbols
    • lengthening (single dot or colon- clearly longer
    • ◦Shortening (small ˘ over sound symbol)

Card Set
chapter 3 phonetic transcription and diacriticsq
443 artic
Show Answers