Small Animal Surgery

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  1. This is any disruption of tissue continuity
  2. Name types of wounds
    • Accidental - trauma
    • Deliberate - surgical
  3. Wound healing speed depends on:
    • Age of the patient
    • Severity of wound
  4. Types of wound healing:
    • First intention
    • Second intention
  5. Why do blood vessels constrict when a wound is created?
    Compensatory shock
  6. This is healing of a wound without infection or excessive granulation tissue
    First intention
  7. This is tissue on the surface of a wound that is basically comprised of wbcs and debris
    Granulation tissue
  8. This means to bring the edges of the wound in a side-by-side fashion
  9. These cells begin a rapid series of mitotic divisions and bridge the surface of a wound
    Simple Squamous Epithelial cells
  10. When does bridging of the surface of a wound take place?
    Within 48 hours
  11. List the steps of wound healing
    • 1. Wound created, blood vessels constrict briefly
    • 2. Vasodilation allows wbcs in to phagocytize debris and microorganisms
    • 3. Simple squamous epithelials rapidly divide and bridge wound surface
    • 4. Fibroblasts appear after wbcs eliminate debris
    • 5. Collagen fibers appear on 4-5th day
    • 6. After 3-4 weeks fibroblasts almost gone and wound filled with dense collagen fibers
  12. The time it takes for a wound surface to water resistant
    48 hours after suturing
  13. The time when sutures can be removed
    10 days
  14. The time it takes after suture removal for the wound to be at near full strength and will resist trauma.
    3-4 weeks
  15. This is an open wound healing with two granulation surfaces and severe infection with pus
    Second intention healing
  16. Another name for the presence of pus in a wound
  17. What is the difference between first and second intention healing
    • 1. The presence of infection in the second intention healing
    • 2. Edges are too wide for simple squamous epithelial cells to bridge the gap so more granulation tissue with capillaries form and grow toward each other to fill the gap
  18. Conditions of the incision site that should be brought to the DVM's attention

    • 1. Swelling
    • 2. Tissue protruding from incision
    • 3. Erythema
    • 4. Discharge of any kind
    • 5. Separation of wound edges
  19. This is a term that has been used in error interchangeably with electrosurgery
  20. What is the only real drawback of electrosurgery?
    Coagulation of the ends of the blood vessels makes first intention healing impossible.
  21. 3 phases of surgery
    • 1. preoperative
    • 2. operative
    • 3. post-operative
  22. RVT preoperative duties:
    • 1. release form
    • 2. patient fasted 8-12 hours
    • 3. give owner progress reports
    • 4. patient is clean
    • 5. pre-op medications
    • 6. surgical instrument inventory
    • 7. appropriate surgical site preparation
  23. RVT operative phase duties
    • 1. be familiar with all duties of all members
    • 2. anticipate supplies and surgeon needs
    • 3. blot incision sites to help hemostasis
    • 4. ensure instruments attached to skin give surgeon maximum visibility
    • 5. handle tissues gently
    • 6. cut sutures with sharp-sharps
    • 7. keep loose suture material out of the way while surgeon works
    • 8. note breathing and blood color
    • 9. Police the surgical site for loose objects (instruments, cut sutures, sponges, etc.)
  24. RVT post-operative duties
    • 1. Untie endotracheal tube/deflate/monitor for swallowing
    • 2. Remove endotracheal tube upon return of swallowing reflex
    • 3. Monitor temperature until within normal range and maintain dry bedding
    • 4. Roll patient every 15 minutes until patient is able to maintain sternal recumbency
    • 5. Report major changes/problems (vomiting) to surgeon
  25. Possible post-op complications:
    • 1. uncontrolled bleeding from incision site
    • 2. pale mucous membranes and prolonged capillary refill time
    • 3. excessive swelling of incision site
    • 4. prolonged/difficult recovery time
    • 5. Dehiscence
    • 6. Dyspnea
    • 7. Vomiting
    • 8. Licking or chewing of incision site
  26. RVT duties when sending the patient home
    • 1. prepare prescribed medications and make sure they are ready for owner at time of pickup
    • 2. Remind owners of: exercise and dietary restrictions; dressing changes; suture removal times
    • 3. Give owner emergency phone numbers for any questions that may arise
    • 4. After all instructions and the bill is paid, bring pet to owner
  27. This procedure removes both ovaries and the uterus
    Ovariohysterectomy (OVH)
  28. Common misconceptions about an OVH
    • 1. It is beneficial for the pet to have one litter first - actually easier if done prior to first heat
    • 2. All spayed dogs/cats get fat - metabolism may slow down but caloric intake should be adjusted accordingly
    • 3. All dogs/cats over 3 years are too old to be spayed - false
  29. Why does pregnancy increase the risk of bleeding during an OVH?
    Elevated levels of estrogen interfere with clotting
  30. This is an accumulation of pus in the uterus
  31. Is a pyometra an elective surgery?
    No - emergency surgery
  32. The scientific term for neutering
  33. This surgery removes the distal phalanges and the ungual processes in a cat.
  34. Why is an onychectomy performed?
    To prevent sharpening on furniture
  35. Reasons for an orchiectomy
    • 1. Reduce aggressive tendencies
    • 2. Sterilization to prevent roaming
    • 3. Reduce marking
    • 4. Reduce testicular tumor possibilities
    • 5. Reduce venereal disease possibilities
    • 6. Prostate gland hyperplasia treatment
  36. Adverse affects of castrations earlier than 6 months of age
    • 1. Stunted growth
    • 2. Underdeveloped sphincter muscles leading to urinary incontinence
  37. What must you do to reduce the swelling and discomfort associated with an orchiectomy?
    • Exercise
    • Ice packs
Card Set
Small Animal Surgery
notes on wounds and pre, peri, post op dutes
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