Bio Exam 2 Final

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  1. Photosynthesis: What does LIR make?
    • glucose
    • uses energy from ATP and NADPH2 to place H's on CO2
    • regenerates RuBP so process can continue
  2. Photosynthesis: What does LDR make?
    • Makes ATP from H's in water
    • NADPH2 carries electrons from water
  3. Photosynthesis: What four things does LIR need?
    • Enzymes
    • RuBP
    • Fuel from LDR (NADPH2 and ATP)
    • CO2
  4. Cellular Respiration:  What is the transition (III) or prep step?
    converts two molecules of the 3 carbon pyruvate from glycolsis into two molecules of the 2-carbon molecule acetyle coenzyme A
  5. Cellular Respiration: describe glycolysis
    set of reaction in which glucose is broken down to two pyruvates for a net yield of 2 ATP (adds 2 ATP to glucose to yield 2 pyruvates, 4 ATP and 2 NADH---net yield of 2 ATP)
  6. Cellular Respiration; What products are produced by glycolysis?
    2 ATP, 2 NADH, and 2 pyruvates
  7. Cellular Respiration: What does ETS require?
    6O2, 10 NADH, and 2 FADH2
  8. Cellular respiration; Where do triglycerides, proteins and carbohydrates enter cellular respiration?
    Carbohydrates produce glucose. If not enough carbs are consumed the body will turn proteins and triglycerides into the needed sugar
  9. Cellular respiration: what products are produced by the Kreb's cycle?
    2 ATP, 6 NADH, and 2 FADH2. (Remaining four carbons lost as 4CO2.)
  10. Cellular Respiration: Describe the Kreb's cycle.
    Cyclic pathway that, along with acetyl CoA formation, breaks down two pyruvate to carbon dioxide for a net yield of 2 ATP and many reduced coenzymes
  11. Cellular respiration: what is chemiosmosis?
    The generation of ATP by the movement of hydrogen ions across a membrane during cellular respiration
  12. Cellular respiration: Products of the Prep step.
    2 NADH, 2 acetyl CoA and 2 CO2
  13. Genetics; Nondisjunction
    • Meiosis II- sisters fail to separate
    • Meiosis I- homologous chromosomes fail to separate
  14. Genetics name some Autosomal dominant disorders
    Polydactyly, dwarfism, hypercholesterolemia
  15. Genetics: examples of sex-linked inheritance.
    blood clotting, male pattern baldness, color vision
  16. Genetics: examples of autosomal recessive disorders
    sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, albinism, PKU, Tay-Sachs
  17. Genetics: multiple allele inheritance
    traits that have more than two alleles controlling them. Blood type
  18. Genetics; pleiotropy
    One gene effects many traits like Marfan syndrome (Abe Lincoln)
  19. Genetics; causes of Down's syndrome
    three copies of chromosome 21, aneuploidy, non disjunction during meiosis
  20. Genetics: Single trait inheritance
    Means if there is a dominant gene, it will show if it is presented and one gene pair controls the trait
  21. Genetics: 4 types of chromosomal mutations
    • Inversion
    • translocation
    • deletion
    • duplication
  22. Genetics: Monohybrid cross
    Cross in which individuals with different alleles of one gene are crossed
  23. Genetics; Polygenic inheritance
    many sets of genes effect a single trait, such as human skin color
  24. Genetics: Mendel's law of segregation
    allele pairs separate during gamete formation and randomly unite at fertilization
  25. DNA:what is a codon?
    one half of the broken DNA strand. The CODE for the DNA
  26. DNA-anticodon
    RNA's opposite answer to codon. while DNA uses T-A, G-C, RNA uses U-A, G-C
  27. DNA: What does translation need and where does it happen?
    mRNA, tRNA, rRNA cytoplasm
  28. DNA: DNA structure
    • Ladder of sugar and phosphate
    • Rungs of complementary nucleotides
  29. DNA: RNA polymerase
    Main enzyme responsible for transcription
  30. DNA; DNA polymerase
    enzyme that brings in the correct complementary nucleotides during replication
  31. DNA; Disorder caused by DNA substitiution
    Sickle cell anemia
  32. DNA; What is DNA made from?
    Chromosomes and protiens
  33. Mitosis; karyotype
    pictures of chromosomes--amniocentsis
  34. Mitosis; prophase
    chromatids thicken
  35. Mitosis: metaphase
    Sisters line up on equator
  36. Mitosis: Karyokinesis
    division of the nucleus
  37. DNA: cell cycle
    • G1-growth
    • S-dna duplicates
    • G2-2nd growth phase
    • M-Mitosis
    • G1-S-G2 are interphase--this is most of the time
  38. Meiosis: What creates variation?
    • Crossing over
    • independent assortment
    • which egg?
    • which sperm
  39. Meiosis; interkinesis
    period between meiosis i and meiosis ii
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Bio Exam 2 Final
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