brain/behavior exam 2

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  1. When does the human central nervous system begin to form when in the embryo
    2 weeks old
  2. What does the fluid filled cavity become?
    The central canal and the four ventricles
  3. what does the neural tube form into?
    the hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain
  4. brain weight birth, 1, adult
    350g, 1000g, 1400g
  5. Production of new cells; cells along the ventricles of the brain divide to become neurons and glia
  6. Movement of primitvie neurons and gila toward their final destination in the brain
  7. Neurons developing an axon and dendrites; the axon grows before the dendrites while the neuron is migration toward its destination
  8. Glia cells produce myelin forms first in the spinal cord before forming in the brain. Myelination begins during the prenatal period and continues into adulthood.
  9. The final stage of neural development and refers to the formation of the synapses between neurons.
  10. Who discovered that muscles produce and release nerve growth factor which promotes survival and growth of axons. Axon and cell bodies die without it. The muscles that synapse with the axons does not determine how many but which synapse survive.
    Rita Levi Montalcini
  11. When an axon and cell body dies without NGF its called
  12. A chemical that promotes the survival and acitvity of neurons like ngf and brain-derived neurotropic factor (bdnf)
  13. In what 3 ways does neurotrophins work?
    • provent apoptosis
    • increase axonal brainching
    • increase pain and increase regrowth of axon
  14. What cells can replace ones that have died
    Olfactory recptors, stem cells
  15. Who severed optic nerve axons tectum: depends on chemical gradient in the target cells
  16. During development, synapses form randomly before a selection process keeps some and rejects others in addition to chemical guidance and trophic factors
    Neural darwinism
  17. Because of the unpredictability of life, we have evolved the ability to ...
    redesign our brain in response to experience
  18. Environmental enrichment leads to...
    enhanced dendritic branching and improved performance in animals and humans. The enrichment is bigger if they occur early in life
  19. Can adult certebrate brain develop new neurons. Learning new things in for year strengthens dendritic spines.
  20. Musicians have a larger what and thicker what
    30% larger right hemisphere and left temporal lobe. Thicker gray matter where hand control and vision
  21. A  condition where the reorganizaiton of the brain goes to far. Clumsy, fatigue, involuntary movements.
    Focal hand dystonia
  22. Development of brain area depends on:
    the rate of production of new neurons/day, and the number of days
  23. What causes slight decrease in IQ scores, and greater decrease in language skills
  24. What drug causes heart problems when exposed to a forming baby
    antidepressant drugs
  25. What causes low birth weight, sudden infant death deficits, ADHD, impaired immune system, delinquency?
    prenatal exposure to cigarette smoking
  26. How does does a stroke destroy neurons ?
    K accumulation and edema-the release of glutamate. Cells in vicinity die immediately.
  27. Five most common stroke symptoms:
    • numbness or weakness of face, leg, arm, on one side.
    • sudden confusion, trouble speaking
    • sudden trouble seeing in on or both eyes
    • sudden trouble walking, dizziness
    • sudden severe headache
  28. Tissue plasminogen activator activates the factor in the blood which ultimately break up a blood clot. To be effective, thrombolytic therapy should be administered as quickly as possible.
    Thrombolytics-stroke treatment
  29. Glutamate antagonists, calcium antagonists, opiate antogonists and antioxidants. (cool the brain)
    Neuroprotectives-stroke treatment
  30. what has been known to potentially minimize cell loss after a brain stroke, most likely due to anti-inflammatory effects.
  31. Removing the sensory nerves, forces to use the deafferented limb
  32. Decreased activity of surving neurons after other neurons are destroyed. Behavioral deficits due to this can sometimes be improved with the use of use of stimulant drugs.
  33. A newly formed branch from an uninjured axon that attaches to a synapse
    Collateral sprouts
  34. Heightened sensitivity to a neurotransmitter after the destruction of incoming axons.
    Denervation supersensitivity
  35. Heightened sensitivity as a result of inactivity by an incoming axon
    Disuse supersensitivity
  36. What destroys DA neurons
  37. Recovery from brain damage early in life more extensive than after similar damage later in life
    Kennard principle
  38. supervised practice of the impaired bahaviors. Help the brain-damaged person find their lost skills or learn to use remaining abilities more effectively.
    Main therapy
  39. Prevent the calcium form entering the cells
  40. promate restoration of damaged neural tissue
  41. Replacing dead brain cells with healthy ones from a donor. Mostly used in parkinson's
    brain grafts
  42. An opening in the center of the iris in which light enters the eye. It is focused by the lens
  43. Rear surface of the eye, which is lined with visual receptors
  44. Light that enters the eye strinkes which half
    the opposite side it entered from
  45. Neurons located close to the center of the eye. The retina, receptors sends their messages to these cells
    bipolar cells
  46. bipolar cells send their messages here. The neurons located even closer to the center of the eye. Join together and loop around and travel back to the brain
    ganglion cells
  47. the ganglion cells join together to form the
    optic nerve
  48. the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye
    blind spot
  49. central portion of the macula specialized from acute detailed vision. It has the least impeded vision as blood vessles and ganglion cells are almost absent.
  50. the ganglion cells in humans and other primates. These cells are small and each receives an input from a single cone
  51. midget ganglion cells
  52. Neurons with fixed excitatory and inhibitory zones in their reciptive fields; these cells are found only in the primary visual cortex (V1). Have bar shaped or edge shaped receptive fields.
    simple cells
  53. Located in either v1 or v2 these neurons have receptive fields that respond to particular orientations of light but cannot be mapped into fixed excitatory and inhibitory zones. Receive their input from a combination of simple cells.
    complex cells
  54. resemble complex cells but also have a strong inhibitory area at one end of their bar shaped receptive field
    end-stopped (hypercomplex) cells
  55. cells in the visual cortex are grouped together in columns perpendicular to the surface according to their responsiveness to specific stimuli. Cells may respond only to visual input from the left or right eye.
    columnar organization of the visual cortex
  56. Neurons whose responses indicated the presence of a particular feature. The fact that prolonged exposure to a given visual feature decreases sensitivity to that feature supports this concept
    feature detectors
Card Set
brain/behavior exam 2
ch 5,6,7,8
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