History Chapter 1

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  1. Paleolithic Age?
    • earliest use of stone tools from 1 million years ago to about 10,000 B.C.E. 
    • people were hunters, fishers, and gatherers
    • learned to make and control fire
    • acquired language
  2. Culture?
    • the sum total of the ways of living built up by a group and passed on from one generation to another. 
    • includes courtship and child rearing practices, material things (tools, clothing) and ideas and beliefs
  3. Neolithic Age?
    • 10,000 years ago, Middle East began to change from a nomadic hunter-gatherer culture to agricultural one
    • Productive animals sheep/goats, food crops were first domesticated
    • invention of pottery
    • permanent dwellings
  4. Mesopotamia?
    • 5000 B.C.- 500 B.C.
    • Tigris and Euphrates rivers
    • modern Iraq
    • created a hierarchy of larger and smaller settlements 
    • artwork appeared
    • new technologies like smelting and manufacture of metal tools and weapons 
    • different classes of people developed
  5. civilization?
    characteristics of the form of human culture; includes urbanism, technological industrial and social change, long distance trade and new methods of symbolic communication
  6. Bronze Age?
    • 3100-1200 B.C.
    • Near East and eastern Mediterranean
    • someone discovered how to combine tin and cooper to make a stronger and more useful material
  7. Who were the Sumerians?
    • built large cities (over 100,000)
    • created first sophisticated system of writing 
    • created the wheel 
    • designed a gravity flow irrigation system 
    • NOT members of Semitic language 
    • arrived 5000 B.C.
  8. Who was Sargon the Great?
    • first ruler of Mesopotamia
    • brought Mesopotamia under single rule in 2300 B.C. 
    • spread Sumerian culture throughout fertile crescent; trade, religion, writing
  9. Neolithic Revolution?
    dramatic change in subsistence, settlement, technology and population around 10,000 B.C.
  10. What was cuneiform?
    • wedge shaped marks made on clay tablets with a cut-reed stylus 
    • created by Sumerians
    • expanded on pictography 
    • earliest known system of writing
  11. pictography?
    primitive form of writing
  12. What contributions did the Sumerians make?
    • Cuneiform
    • Mathematics; based on units of 60 and its divisors 
    • Chronology; lunar calendar, measured seasons, close year calculations
  13. What religion did Sumerians practice?
    • polytheism; various gods
    • Ziggurats; build temples to please gods, no code of ethics, rituals and sacrifices, Epic of Gilgamesh
  14. What was the code of Hammurabi?
    • laws of Babylonia/Mesopotamian society 1792-1750 B.C. 
    • punishment depended on social class; usually eye for an eye 
    • government is impartial referee for citizens 
    • stated punishments; upheld right to compensation
  15. What were the social classes of Mesopotamia?
    • noble/priests 
    • freemen
    • slaves
  16. Describe the Government
    • Early on Theocracy; ruled by gods and priests of city-states
    • Later kings ruled the region, beginning with Sargon the Great
  17. How did Mesopotamia decline?
    • 1500 B.C. conquered by the Hittites, then Assyrians in 1200 B.C. and finally by Persians in 500 B.C.
    • becomes center of Islamic World
    • becomes "prosperous" again in 20th century
  18. What factors lead to the downfall of Mesopotamia?
    • environmental depletion
    • erosion 
    • intense heat
    • sandstorms
  19. What was Egypt's geography?
    • River civilization- The Nile River
    • surrounded/protected by desert and Red Sea marshes making it isolated 
    • 2 sections; Upper and Lower Egypt
  20. What are some characteristics of the Nile River?
    • flows out of Lake Victoria; south to north into Mediterranean
    • valley is lush, green
    • floods more gently than Tigris and Euphrates
    • means of travel, transportation of commerce and agriculture
    • floods made soil fertile for crops
  21. What were the periods of Egyptian history?
    • 3100-2660 B.C. Archaic;
    •             Unification 
    • 2660-2180 B.C. Old Kingdom;
    •     Construction of Pyramids
    • 2180-2080 B.C. First Intermediate;
    •             political chaos 
    • 2080-1640 B.C Middle Kingdom;
    •    recovery and political stability
    • 1640-1570 B.C. Second Intermediate;
    •             Hyksos Invasion 
    • 1570-1075 B.C. New Kingdom
    • Creation of Egyptian Empire , Akhenaten’s religious policy
    • 1100-653 B.C Third Intermediate
    •          Political fragmentation
  22. When were the pyramids built?
    After the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt, during the Old Kingdom Period
  23. What are some characteristics of the pyramids of Giza?
    • • Commissioned by King Khufu (Cheops)
    • • Covers 13 acres
    • • Orig. 480 feet high, now 450 ft.
    • • Sphinx– strength and wisdom of both man & beast
    • • 2600-2100 B.C.
  24. Pharaoh?
    a king who was also a god in Egypt
  25. What were hieroglyphs?
    • sacred carvings by Egyptians 
    • symbols that convey meaning through a series of pictures that represent sounds
  26. What was the Rosetta Stone?
    • was the key to deciphering hieroglyphs; 
    • work of French linguist/archaeologist Jean Francois Champollion, 1822
    • was called  Father of Egyptology
  27. What religion did Egyptians practice?
    • polytheist 
    • over 3,000 gods
    • Chief gods were sun gods Amon and Ra, later combined into one god
    • Isis– goddess of the Nile and fertility
    • Osiris, the god of the afterlife
    • Horus, son of Osiris and Isis– the pharaoh
  28. What did Egyptians believe in the Afterlife?
    • believed in continuation of life on Earth 
    • judgement fo the "ka" the soul/spirit of the person on earth ventured into the afterlife
  29. Who try to revolutionize religion in Egypt?
    Pharaoh Akhenaton
  30. What did Pharaoh Akhenaton try to do?
    • tried to turn Egypt to a monotheism culture 
    •  In opposition to the priests
    • Claims that the god, Aton, was his father, and that Aton, not Amon (Amon-Ra) was to be worshipped
  31. Under King Tutankhamen (boy pharaoh) what happened?
    Egypt returned to polytheism
  32. Compare/Contrast Near River Civilizations:
    • Mesopotamia
    • Subject to violent change
    • Crossroad where civ. and barbarians met
    • Melting pot, blending of newcomers, beliefs, new ideas
    • Egypt 
    • Stable for much of its history
    •  Protected by natural barriers
    • Isolated, except for trade, false sense of superiority
  33. What was Assyria?
    • Military powerhouse
    • Vast empire from Tigris to Central Europe
    • powerful with armies under King Tiglath-Pileser III, and Sargon II (ca. 750 B.C.)
  34. How did Assyrians decline?
    • Assyrians fall around 612 B.C.
    • Babylonians fought against the Assyrians under Babylonian leader, Nebuchadnezzar
  35. What factors contributed to the rise of Isareal?
Card Set
History Chapter 1
World History Chapter 1; The Birth of Civilization
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