MSA Lessons 1-3

  1. Name the three types of primary cells found in bones
    • Osteoblasts (Building)
    • Osteoclasts (chewing)
    • Osteocytes
  2. What is the role of Osteoblasts?
    Synthesise new bone matrix
  3. What is the role of Osteoclasts?
    Resorption of bone (from monocytes)
  4. What is the role of Osteocytes?
    Help maintain homeostasis (mature osteoblasts)
  5. Bone is covered by a layer of connective tissue called the...
  6. The skeleton can be broken down into three main sections.
    • Axial Skeleton (down the middle)
    • Appendicular Skeleton – Further broken down to: Upper extremities & Lower extremities
  7. Name the Axial Skeleton
    Forms the longitudinal axis of the body and is made up of the skull, vertebral column, sternum, ribs & hyoid
  8. Name the appendicular skeleton; upper extremities
    Scapula & clavicle of the upper limb (shoulder) girdle; humerus of the arm; radius & ulna of the forearm; carpel bones of the wrist; metacarpals of the palm; and Phalanges of the fingers.
  9. Name the appendicular skeleton; lower extremities
    Hipbones (coxal bones) of the lower limb (pelvic) girdle; femur of the thigh; tibia and fibula of the leg; tarsal bones of the ankle; metatarsals of the foot; phalanges of the toes.
  10. Name the 3 parts of a long bone.
    • Diaphysis
    • Epiphysis
    • Metaphysis
  11. Describe the diaphysis
    Tubular shaft of bone
  12. Describe the Epiphysis
    Knobby part at either end of the bone
  13. Describe the Metaphysis
    Epiphyseal (growth) plate (line) & adjacent bone trabeculae of spongy bone tissue.
  14. What is the tissue inside the medullary cavity?
    The marrow cavity – bone marrow (Found in the main shaft of long bones)
  15. What are the 5 functions of muscle?
    • Motion of a part of the body
    • Maintenance of posture
    • Heat production (thermogenesis)
    • Enhances venous return via muscle pumps.
  16. What are the 5 functions of bone?
    Balancing, movement, standing, grasping of objects & the manipulation of objects.
  17. What does Ossification mean?
    The formation of bone.
  18. What are two main types of ossification:
    • Intramembranous ossification – bone is formed from mesenchymal tissue, which is a network of connective tissue (inside)
    • Endochondrial ossification – bone developed by replacing cartilage model (outside)
  19. Describe a long bone
    Length is greater than it’s width with an epiphysis at each end.
  20. Give an example for a long bone |
    Femur, humerus, metacarpals, metatarsals, phalanges
  21. Describe a Short bone
    Similar dimensions in length and width.
  22. Give an example of a short bone
    Carpal (wrist) and tarsal (ankle) bones.
  23. Describe a Flat bone
    Thin and curved
  24. Give an example of a flat bone
    Ribs, scapulae, sternum, pelvic bone and skull bones.
  25. Describe Irregular bones
    Do not fit neatly into any category.
  26. Give an example of irregular bones
    Vertebrae, hyoid, facial bones and hip bones.
  27. Describe Sesamoid bones
    Small bones embedded within certain tendons.
  28. Provide an example of a sesamoid bone
    Patella and pisiform bone.
  29. Describe accessory bones
    Commonly found in feet and skull
  30. Give an example of accessory bones
    Sutural and Wormain bones.
  31. What molecule is responsible (used for fuel) for movement.
    Calcium & ATP
  32. Why does rigormortis occur?
    Chemical changes in muscles after death causing the body to become stiff and difficult to move or manipulate. It is due to depletion of oxygen and calcium ions used for making ATP.
  33. Calcium released into the sarcoplasm as a result of a motor neuron impulse binds to what,
    • and results in what?
    • The calcium allows the actin to bind with the myosin which pulls the actin and causes the sarcomere to shorten & muscle to shorten.
    • Sliding filament theory
  34. What does ATP bind to and what is the result?
    ATP binds to the myosin and disengages from the actin so the muscle can return to its original position.
  35. Why do we eat food (besides from being hungry!)
    To provide our body with fuel to be used to produce energy and movement.
  36. What is an antagonistic pair?
    The name given to both sets of opposing muscles, for example biceps/triceps or quadriceps and hamstrings.
  37. What are Sarcomeres?
    Compartments along myofibrils separated by Z discs. They are made up of alternating thick and thin myofilaments called I-bands and A-bands.
  38. What is a Sarcolemma?
    Plasma membrane surrounding each muscle fibre which surrounds a quality of cytoplasm called sarcoplasm.
  39. What is a Foramen?
    An opening through which blood vessels, nerves or ligament pass.
  40. What is a Fossa?
    A depression in or on a bone
  41. What is a ligament?
    A short band of touch, flexible fibrous connective tissue which connects two bones or cartilages or holds together a joint.
  42. What is a tendon?
    A cord of connective tissue that attaches a muscle to the periosteum of a bone.
  43. 10. Put these muscle structures in order from largest to smallest: Myofiber, Muscle belly,
    • sarcomere, fascicle, myofibril, myofilament.
    • Muscle belly, Fasicle, myofiber, Myofibril, sarcomere, Myofilament
  44. Agonist
    Primary mover. Bulk of force
  45. Synergist
    Helps the action
  46. Motor unit
    Motor nerve + muscle fiber
  47. Antagonist
    Opposes agonist
  48. Fixators and Stabilises
    Reduce unwanted movement (Core muscle)
  49. Muscle getting longer. Lowering, gravity assisted
    Eccentric contraction
  50. Muscle getting shorter. Raising weight or gravity resisted
    Concentric contraction
  51. Muscle not moving.
    Isometric contraction
  52. Adduction
  53. Abduction
    Take away
  54. Flexion
    Bring forward (horizontal flexion & extension)
  55. Bring straight back
  56. Bring back
  57. Bring forward
  58. Rotate inwards
  59. Rotate backwards
  60. Supernation
    Rotate lower arm outwards without moving elbow or shoulder
  61. Longer under tension
  62. Shorter under tension
  63. Doesn’t move under tension
  64. Lats little helper
    Teres Major - Connects to bottom of scapular to the anterior of humerus
  65. What is the primary action of the rhomboid major?
    Retraction (adducts) and fixes the scapula
  66. What is the primary action of the sternocleidomastoid?
    Lateral flexion of the head. Alone will rotate the neck to the opposite side. Together with the other SCM) – will flex the neck.
  67. What is the primary action of the biceps brachii?
    Flexes the elbow and supinates the radioulnar joinet (forearm)
  68. What is the primary action of the triceps brachii?
    Extends the elbow
  69. What is the primary action of the brachioradialis?
    Flexes the elbow (esp in the neutral grip ie the hammering muscle).
  70. What is the primary action of the coracobrachialis?
    Adducts and flexes the shoulder
  71. Name the 3 hip bones from posteriorly to anteriorly
    Ilium, ischium and pubis.
  72. Which of these do you not find in Osseous tissue: Matrix, inorganic salts, collagenous fibres, periosteum.
  73. In endochondrial ossification what does bone replace?
    A cartilage model
  74. What are the primary hip flexors?
    The iliacus, the psoas major and the rectus femoris
  75. What is a sarcolemma?
    the cell membrane of a myofiber
  76. What is a sarcomere?
    The smallest functional unit of a muscle
Card Set
MSA Lessons 1-3
MSA Lessons 1-3