Psych quiz

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  1. Latent learning
    A form of learning that is not immediately expressed in an overt response; occurs without obvious reinforcement
  2. Social cognitive theories
    Theories that emphasize how behavior is learned and maintained through observation and imitation of others, positive consequences, and cognitive processes such as plans, expectations and beliefs.
  3. Observational learning
    A process in which an individual learns new responses by observing the behavior of another rather than through direct experience
  4. Reasoning
    The drawing of conclusions or inferences from observations, facts or assumptions
  5. Dialectical reasoning
    A process in which opposing facts or ideas are weighed and compared, with a view to determining the best solution or resolving differences
  6. Affect heuristic
    The tendency to consult ones emotions instead of estimating probabilities objectively.
  7. Availability heuristic
    The tendency to judge the probability of a type of event by how easy it is to think of examples or instances
  8. Framing effect
    The tendency for people's choices to be affected by how a choice is presented, or framed, such as whether it is worded in terms of potential losses or gains.
  9. Hindsight bias
    The tendency to overestimate ones ability to have predicted an event once the outcome is known; the "I knew it all along" phenomenon
  10. Confirmation bias
    The tendency to look for or pay attention only to the information that confirms ones own belief
  11. Mental set
    A tendency to solve problems using procedures that worked before on similar problems
  12. Cognitive dissonance
    A state of tension that occurs when s person holders two cognitions that are psychologically inconsistent, or when a persons belief is incongruent with his or her behavior
  13. Post decision dissonance
    In the theory of cognitive dissonance, tension that occurs when you believe you may have made a bad decision
  14. Justification of effort
    The tendency of individuals to increase their liking for something that they have worked hard or suffered to attain; a common form of dissonance reduction
  15. Explicit memory
    Conscious, intentional recollection of an event or of an item of information
  16. Recall
    The ability to retrieve and reproduce from memory previously encountered material
  17. Recognition
    The ability to identify previously encountered material
  18. Implicit memory
    Unconscious retention in memory, as evidenced by the effect of a previous experience or previously encountered information on current thoughts or actions
  19. Priming
    A method for measuring implicit memory in which a person reads or listens to information and is later tested to see whether the information affects performance on another type of task
  20. Relearning method
    A method for measuring retention that compares the time required to relearn material with the time used in the initial learning of the material
  21. Parallel distributed processing model
    A model of memory in which knowledge is represented as connections among thousands of interacting processing units, distributed in a vast network, all operating in parallel
  22. Sensory register
    A memory system that momentarily preserves extremely accurate images of sensory information
  23. Short term memory
    Limited capacity memory system involved in the retention of information for brief periods
  24. Chunk
    A meaningful unit of information; it may be composed of smaller units
  25. Working memory
    Cognitively complex form of short term memory. Involves active mental processes that control retrieval of information from long term memory and interpret that information appropriately for a given task
  26. Long term memory
    Memory system for long term storage
  27. Procedural memories
    Memories for the performance of actions or skills
  28. Declarative memories
    Memories of facts, rules, concepts, and events; include semantic and episodic
  29. Semantic memories
    Memories of general knowledge including facts, rules, concepts and propositions
  30. Episodic memories
    Memories of personally experienced events and the contexts in which they occured
  31. Mnemonics
    Strategies and tricks for improving memory, such as the use of a verse or a formula
  32. Maintenance rehearsal
    Rote repetition of material in order to maintain its availability in memory
  33. Elaborate rehearsal
    Association of new information with already stored knowledge and analysis of the new information to make it memorable
  34. Deep processing
    In the encoding of information, the processing of meaning rather than simply the physical or sensory features of a stimulus
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Psych quiz
Thinking and consciousness-memory
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