1. standard and RLA terminology of stance phase
    Standard: heel strike, foot flat, midstance, heel off, toe off

    RLA: initial contact, loading response, midstance, terminal stance, pre-swing
  2. standard and RLA terminology of swing phase
    Standard: acceleration, midswing, deceleration

    RLA: initial swing, midswing, terminal swing
  3. the instant that the heel touches the ground to begin stance phase
    • Standard- heel strike
    • RLA - initial contact
  4. the point in which the entire foot makes contact with the ground and should occur directly after heel strike
    • standard- foot flat
    • RLA- loading response
  5. the point during the stance phase when the entire body weight is directly over the stance phase
    • standard- midstance
    • RLA- midstance
  6. the point which the heel of the stance limb remains on the ground
    • standard- heel off
    • RLA- terminal stance
  7. the point in which the heel of the stance limb remains on the ground
    • standard-toe off
    • RLA- pre swing
  8. begins when toe off is complete and the reference limb swings until positioned directly under the body.
    • standard- acceleration
    • RLA- initial swing
  9. the point when the swing limb is directly under the body

    this phase begins with maximal knee flexion during swing and ends when the tibia is perpendicular with the ground
    • standard- midswing
    • RLA- midswing
  10. begins directly after midswing as the swing limb begins to extend and ends just prior to heel strike

    phase begins when the tibia is perpendicular to the foot and ends when the foot touches the ground
    • standard- deceleration
    • RLA- terminal swing
  11. Stance phase is ____% and swing phase is _____%
  12. The distance measured between the left and right foot during progression of gait. The distance decreases as cadence increase. Average base of support is 2-4 inches
    Base of Support
  13. The number of steps an individual will walk over a period of time. The average value for an adult if 110-120 steps per minute

    C) cadence
  14. The angle formed by each foot's line of progression and a line intersecting the center of the heel and second toe. Degree of toe-out
    Average 7 degrees
  15. Double support phase
    The double support phase refers to the two times during the gait cycle where both feet are on the ground. The time of double supprt increases as the speed of gait decreases. This phase does not exist with running.
  16. The gait cycle refers to the sequence of motions that occur from one inital contact of the heel to the next consecutive initial contact of the same heel
    Gait Cycle
  17. Pelvic Rotation
    rotation of the pelvis opposite the thorax in order to maintain balance and regulate speed. 4 degrees forward and 4 degrees backward
  18. Single support phase
    The single support phase occurs when only one foot is on the ground and occurs twice during the gait cycle.
  19. the distance measured between right heel strike and left heel strike. average is 13-16 inches.

    A) step length
  20. The distance measured between right heel strike and the following right heel strike. Average 26-32 inches

    A) stride length
  21. A protective gait pattern where the involoved step length is decreased in order to aviod weight bearing on the involoved side usually secondary to pain.
  22. A gait pattern charcterized by staggering and unsteadiness. Usually a wide BOS and movements are exaggerated (drunk people)
  23. A staggering gait problem seen in cerabellar disease
  24. A gait pattern characterized by a circular motion to advance the leg diring swing phase; this may be used to compensate for insufficient hip or knee flexion or dorsiflexion
  25. A gait pattern in which alternate steps are of a different length or at a different rate.
    Double step AKA Equine step
  26. A gait pattern where a patient walks on toes as though pushed, It starts slowly, increase, and may continue until the patient grasps an object in order to stop. Parkinsons
  27. A gait pattern in which pt abduct the paralyzed limb, swing it around, and bring it forward so the foot comes to the ground in the front of them.
  28. a gait pattern marked by increased forward flexion of the trunk and knees; gait is shuffling with quick and small steps; festinating may occur
  29. A gait pattern in which the legs cross midline upon advancement
  30. A gait pattern with stiff movement, toes seeming to catch and drag, legs held together, hip and knee joints slightly flexed. Commonly seen in spastic paraplegia.
  31. A gait pattern in which the feet and toes are lifted through hip and knee flexion to excessive heights; usually secondary to dorsiflexor weakness. The foot will slap at initial contact with the ground secondary to the decreased control
  32. A high steppage ataxic gait pattern in which the feet slap the ground
  33. A gait pattern that denotes gluteus medius weakness; excessive lateral truck flexion and weight shifting over the stance leg
  34. A gait pattern where the swing leg advanced by compensating through the combination of elevation of the pelvis and plantar flexion of the stance leg
    weak dorsifelxors
    dorsiflexor paralysis
    Foot slap
    Plantar flexor spasticity
    plantar flexor contracture
    weak dorsiflexors
    dorsiflexors paralysis
    leg length discrepancy
    hindfoot pain
    toe down
    toe flexor spasticity
    postive support reflex
    Clawing of toes
    Insufficient dorsiflexion range
    plantar flexor spasticity
    Heel lift during midstance due to?
    Heel lift during midstance
    forefoot/toe pain
    weak plantar flexors
    insufficient plantar flexion range of motion
    No toe off
    weak quadriceps
    quadricps paralysis
    hamstrings spasticity
    insufficient extension ROM
    Exaggerated knee flexion at contact
    compensation for weak quadriceps
    plantar flexor contracture
    Hyperextension in stance
    knee flexion contracture
    hip flexion contracture
    Exaggerated knee flexion at terminal stance
    knee effusion
    quadriceps extension spasticiy
    plantar flexor spasticity
    insufficient flexion ROM
    Insufficient flexion with swing
    Flexor withdrawal reflex
    lower extremity flexor synergy
    Excessive flexion with swing
    weak hip flexors
    hip flexor paralysis
    hip extensor spasticity
    insufficient hip flexion ROM
    insufficient hip flexion at initial contact
    insufficient hip extension ROM
    hip flexion contracture
    lower extremity flexor synergy
    insufficient hip extension at stance
  47. circumduction during swing due to?
    • compensation for weak hip flexors
    • compensation for weak dorsiflexors
    • compensation for weak hamstrings
  48. hip hiking during swing due to?
    • compensation for weak dorsiflexors
    • compensation for weak knee flexors
    • compensation for extensor synergy pattern
  49. exaggerated hip flexion during swing due to?
    • lower extremity flexor synergy
    • compensation for insufficient hip flexion or dorsiflexion
  50. most active muscle during static standing to maintain balance?
  51. what muscle is most active during heel strike?
    tibialis anterior: for eccentric lowering of foot.
  52. when are the quads active most?
    • during early stance (loading response) and
    • just b/f toe off (pre swing)
  53. when are the HS most active?
    during late terminal swing (deceleration) for eccentric deceleration.
Card Set
Review of gait terms and conditions